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Ezra Feldman Vagina

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Xxx lesbian hentai scene. White Wife Black Creampie. Susan anal fucked wife tube amateur wife porn wife. Kinky lesbian urinating. Gina valentina pov threesome. Free picture mens hard cocks. Naked girl with thumb in ass. "Nude sexy couple kiss. Playgirl performs relaxing yet massage for a guy. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Books by Language. F31 Ezra Feldman Vagina Jewish childiits history, folklore, 3 All books are subject to recall after two weeks. Ezra Feldman Vagina p. Sc, LL. You may use and print this copy in limited quantity for your Ezra Feldman Vagina purposes, but may not distribute or provide access to just click for source or modified or partial versions of it for revenue-generating or other commercial purposes. But whilst Ezra Feldman Vagina book is ency- clopsedic in scope, and no pains have been spared to present a complete and fairly detailed panoramic view of the subject, it was not my aim to deal with my theme exhaustively. Any Ezra Feldman Vagina attempt would have meant extending almost every chapter to the size of a book. I believe, however, that I have not omitted any facts which have an important bearing on Ezra Feldman Vagina subject. The scholar or serious student who wishes to pursue the subject Ezra Feldman Vagina greater detail will find in the numerous references plenty of signposts to show him the way. For the benefit of those who possess a knowledge of Hebrew or Talmudics, I have added an appendix, giving, in the form of a short index, the original of some of the more interesting Eabbinical statements or sayings referred to in the body Ezra Feldman Vagina the book. In order to make the subject interesting reading, I have here and there interspersed a few pithy sayings or relevant anecdotes culled from Eabbinic literature. Letal Hite Sex Nude teen girls sexy long legs n pussy.

No, I can't fuck prisoners. The reaction to my article highlighted a few things; There is a massive Ezra Feldman Vagina in being openly Jewish but commenting click various socio-political events that have no Jewish or Israel reference. No matter the subject, the fact that I wear a kippah defines how I am perceived and what I am expected to say. Ezra Feldman Vagina more concerning is the anger of South Africans.

Black Monday was a clear indication that South Africans of all races and of all religions have had enough of being let down by a corrupt government that was elected to serve them. The country is a powder keg. Howard Feldman. South Africa's flag photo Ezra Feldman Vagina And I look thinner Ezra Feldman Vagina black.

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But no one really appreciated my sacrifice. Thus, in Russia go herein only 6 per cent, Ezra Feldman Vagina Jewish marriages were the men younger than twenty, as against 31 per cent, in corresponding non- Jewish marriages.

Even among the women, only per cent, of Jewesses married before the age of twenty, as Ezra Feldman Vagina 55 per cent, among Christian women. Place and Date. General Population. Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria, Eumania, Eussia, These low marriage-rates for Jews exist in Ezra Feldman Vagina of the fact that the relative number of adults of marriage- able ages Ezra Feldman Vagina greater amongst Jews.

Euppin, " The Jews of To-day," London,pp. If they after- wards deserve it, the complementary pairs get united in marriage, and the union is a happy one; otherwise two souls that do not correspond are joined in wedlock, and there is constant strife between them. The same idea is expressed in the Talmud by Rish Lakish, who said that " every man gets the wife he deserves. Jehuda in the name of Eav as follows: Jose ben Chalafta what God has been doing since the creation of the Ezra Feldman Vagina.

yoruichi fuck Watch Video Nude content. Joshua, who had a Cohenite wife, became ill, he somewhat caustically and superciliously asked whether he R. Joshua was not good enough as a husband for a descendant of Aaron. Foul odour from the mouth, excessive perspiration, and un- pleasant rough voice. If, however, that were possible, she cannot be divorced. We have already seen that people with an hereditary taint in the family were discouraged from marrying p. The story is told in the Talmud of a pretty girl who lost a tooth, and with it her lover as well. She was too poor to provide an artificial substitute, so Rabbi Ishmael furnished her with a gold tooth, which restored her beauty as well as her lover. Ishmael wept, and said: The Rabbis, however, treated the man much more leniently than the woman. Thus, " if the marriage was arranged on condition that the man was a scholar, it is not necessary that he should be as learned as Simon ben Azai or Simon ben Zoma, but it is suffi- cient if he knows a little even of the easiest portions of the Talmud. In Theognis v. Yet a good man is willing to marry an evil wife, if she bring him wealth: For men reverence money, and the good marry the evil, and the evil the good. Wealth has confounded the race. See fuitlier Herschberg's article in He'Atid, loc. Consanguinity of Marriage. Both those who advocate such marriages as well as those who are against them point to the Jews as examples in support of their views. Thus, it has often been said, and as often denied, that idiocy, deaf-mutism, blindness, diabetes, etc. The general impression of the deleterious effects of inbreeding has been formed since Darwin showed that continual inbreeding among plants and animals has a bad effect on their fertility and general vigour. About twenty-five years ago, Joseph Jacobs, using the ingenious method described by G. Darwin in the Journal of the Statistical Society for June, , calculated indirectly the number of first cousin marriages among the upper classes of Jews as per cent, of all ' Charles Darwin, " The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication," London, , ii. Thus, in Hungary such marriages are pro- hibited by law, but permission is usually given to those who apply for it. During , five times as many such dispensations in proportion to their population were granted to Jews as to Christians. It is not necessary for us to discuss the causes of the greater frequency of such marriages among them, but it is of interest to investigate the biological effects of such unions. In the first instance, first cousin marriages have been credited with sterility absolute or comparative. That this is not the case is proved by the fact that, whilst, according to various authorities, the proportion of sterile marriages generally varies between per cent. Simpson and 20 per cent. Oesterlen , with an average of per cent. Jacobs, " Jewish Statistics," London, , p. Hence first cousin marriages are half as fertile again as other Jewish marriages. Indeed, as Huth points out, this is what one would expect a priori to be the case, since cousins generally marry younger than do strangers, and it is well known that young marriages are the most prolific because the period of fecundity is longer , provided the contracting parties are not too young. The next accusation that has been brought against consanguineous marriages is that they are responsible for idiocy, imbecility, deaf-mutism, blindness, convul- sions, etc. Now, taking as the pro- portion of first cousin marriages among Jews, and the relative fecundity of ordinary and first cousin marriages as 1 to , we should conclude that x — i. In other words, in any assembly of nine Jewish young men and women we should expect to find a son or a daughter of first cousins. If, therefore, such marriages are responsible for idiocy, we ought to find that more than 10 per cent, of lunatics or deaf- mutes in any asylum are the offspring of first cousin marriages. But this is not the case. Indeed, out of twenty-four children in the Jewish Deaf and Dumb Home, only three were children of first cousins — i. The obvious criticism to this observation is that the numbers are far tcfo few to be of much value. In fact, stock breeders when they have a good stock inbreed success- fully. It does, however, as one would expect, intensify any hereditary taint that may occur in the family. Thus, if both cousins have a nervous or other morbid diathesis, the offspring are more likely to inherit that tendency than the children of other marriages. On the other hand, if there is any particularly valuable hereditary quality in the cousins, the marriage between them should intensify that quality in their offspring. Jewish Heredity and Mendelism. Redcliffe N. Salaman, by what is called the Mendelian Method. In order to be able to follow intelligently the lines upon which Dr. Menddism is a law of heredity discovered in by an Austrian monk, Gregor Johann Mendel, who, though possessing a Jewish name, was not of Jewish descent. Mendel carried out numerous hybridization experi- ments on the edible pea Pisum sativum , and selected for his purpose two varieties of the plant which, though identical in all other respects — such as the shape of the seed, shape and colour of pod, etc. IJ foot plant called the parent plants, P consisted entirely of plants from 6 to 7 feet high. There were no short or intermediate forms. He therefore called the character of tallness a dominant, because it prevailed to the total exclusion of the opposite character, dwarfness. This showed Mendel that, although the Fj plants were all taU, they were not pure tails, but that the character of dwarfness was latent in them. He therefore called the character dwarfness, which was suppressed in Fj, but reappeared in Fg, a recessive ; and the tails of Fj he called impure tails or impure dominants, or hybrid dominants. F3, F4. Fn; and two-thirds of impure tails, which, like the impure tails of Fj, produced in the next generation tails and dwarfs again in the definite proportion of 3: The male and female sexual cells called gametes of the tall parent he assumed to contain within them the dominant character of tallness represented hereafter by d , and those of the dwarf parent the recessive character of dwarfness similarly represented by r. Mendel further assumed that although each of the hybrid offspring in Fj contains both the dominant and recessive characters, yet these characters segregate into separate gametes, so that each hybrid contains within itself an equal number of Z-bearing and r-bearing gametes respectively. Fi x Fj , the following combinations of gametes are possible: The jyToportion of Id: Ir, or 3 dominants: Now, if Mendel's theory of segregation of gametes be correct, we ought to get the following corollaries: Either i. Both corollaries have been found to hold good. We are now in a position to understand Dr. Salaman's investigations. Salaman believes that these results show that the Jewish physiognomy is a Mendelian character which is recessive to the GentUe type;, and although, according to the Mendelian theory, all the hybrid children Fj , without exception, should have been of Gentile appear- ance, he explains the absence of absolute dominance to be due to — 1. A distinct tendency on the part of some of the observers to claim wherever possible a Jewish type of face for the children they examined. Now, if the Jewish type of face is really a recessive character, we ought to find that, as explained on p. See also Eugenics Review, October, Again, in the case of hybrid-Gentile marriages we ought to expect all the children to be Gentile-looking domi- nant , and that has been found to be the case with the eleven children of five such marriages. See Plate II. There is still one other niethod left for testing this question, and that is to investigate the physiognomy of the offspring of hybrid-hybrid or Fi x Fi marriages, where by Mendel's Law see p. But, owing to the extreme scarcity of such marriages, Salaman could not find a single example. The results, however, obtained by him in the other case are sufficiently striking to lead him to the conclusion that the Jewish fhysiognomy is a recessive Mendelian character. The importance of this conclusion will be emphasized later, when I shall speak of the " purity of descent " of the Jewish child see p. Here I only wish to remark that, though Dr. Salaman's results are exceedingly interesting, the numbers are too few to be absolutely conclusive. Non-Jewish-looking Children of C and D. Jewish-looking Children of and D. The diMwe pediyrm diagram has been eomirueted out of photographs orlgiiudlii published in the "Journal of Genetics. Brother of C, and Husband of F. Jewish -looking Children of and D. Jewish-looking Son of E and F. Non-Jewish-looking Son of E and F. Indeed, the very name for marriage in Hebrew, kiddushin, means the " ceremony of sanctifi- cation. Do not marry a wife unless you can support her. Chisda, as already quoted p. Because I married when I was sixteen years old, and had I married at the age of fourteen I would have been able to defy Satan. Fishberg very reasonably suggests that " one of the causes of the large number of defectives found among the Eastern European Jews is the fact that the Jewish communities have always been doing their best to marry every defective man and woman who, among other people, would hardly have a chance to propagate their kind. At the present time the Talmudical laws are disregarded to such an extent that not only is the marriage age of Jews all over the world except in Oriental countries like Palestine, Morocco, etc. See Chapter XXV. Abrahams, op. Fishberg, " The Jews," London, , p. Over Twenty Years. Under Thirty Years. Chris tian Similar figures have been given for various places all over Europe. Thus, in Russia in , in only 6 per cent, of Jewish marriages were the men younger than twenty, as against 31 per cent, in corresponding non- Jewish marriages. Even among the women, only per cent, of Jewesses married before the age of twenty, as against 55 per cent, among Christian women. Place and Date. General Population. Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria, Eumania, Eussia, These low marriage-rates for Jews exist in sfite of the fact that the relative number of adults of marriage- able ages is greater amongst Jews. Euppin, " The Jews of To-day," London, , pp. If they after- wards deserve it, the complementary pairs get united in marriage, and the union is a happy one; otherwise two souls that do not correspond are joined in wedlock, and there is constant strife between them. The same idea is expressed in the Talmud by Rish Lakish, who said that " every man gets the wife he deserves. Jehuda in the name of Eav as follows: Jose ben Chalafta what God has been doing since the creation of the world. Jose's reply. The next morning, however, the couples came back with broken heads and limbs, complaining of their misalliances. The noblewoman then confessed to R. Jose that she was mistaken. Hence it is said that " it is as hard to join two people in wedlock as it is to divide the Red Sea. Simeon ben Yocbai a. Ginsburg and otters it is tbe work of Isaac tie Blind and his disciples, between a. A landowner, noticing that the population on his estate increased very slowly, had a list of the inhabitants of his village brought to him, from which he picked out the names of boys over the age of eighteen and of girls over sixteen. He then wrote, " John to marry Anna, Paul to marry Parashka," and so on. Women young and old wept in every house. Anna had hoped to marry Gregory; Paul's parents had already had a talk with the Fedotofis about their girl who would soon be of age. At the appointed time the nuptial processions, in this case more like burial pro- cessions, went to the church. One of the house valets was sent to the church to report to the master as soon as the wedding ceremonies were over, but soon came back, cap in hand, pale and distressed. Father ' that is, the priest ' asked her, " Dost thou agree? Parashka's relatives and the priest surrounded the girl; her mother, weeping, fell on her knees before her, entreating her not to ruin the whole family. The girl continued to say, ' I won't,' but in a weaker and weaker voice, then in a whisper, and at last she stood silent. King Solomon had a very beautiful daughter, and on reading her horoscope learned that she was destined to marry an extremely poor man. In prder to prevent such a thing from happening, he sent her off to an island where he had a special tower built for her, and had her guarded by seventy special watchers. After some time, that poor man who was decreed to be her future husband was walking in the fields barefooted and very hungry, when at the approach of evening he saw the carcass of an ox lying in the road. In order to warm himself, he put himself inside the carcass and fell asleep, when a big bird came and carried the carcass away, and deposited it on the top of the tower in which King Solomon's daughter resided. In the morn- ing the young couple met on the roof. The young lady took the youth inside her chamber and had him washed and dressed. He then became so handsome that she fell in love with him and married him. When King Solomon heard this he was very glad, and said, " Blessed be the Lord, who assigns a husband to every woman! The importance of keeping a promise of marriage is illustrated by the following romance: A pretty maiden was out for a walk in the country, and lost her way. She became very thirsty, when she saw a well in the distance. Bubeij Introduction, She tried to come up again, but could not. She began to cry, when a youth who passed by heard her voice and rescued her. They fell in love with each other and pledged their troth. The girl kept her promise and refused to marry anybody, and when she was pressed by her parents to do so she affected insanity. In the meantime the youth forgot his promise, took himself a wife and had a child. One day the child was left alone for a moment asleep in its cradle, and when its mother returned she was horrified to find her infant dead, its little throat pierced by the fangs of a weasel. After a while his wife presented him with another boy, who was carefully watched that no danger might befall him, but one afternoon he ran out into the garden un- observed, and fell into a well and was drowned. The broken-hearted mother, guessing that her affliction was due to some mystery in the past career of her husband, taxed him with it. He told her of the incident with the maiden in the well, and she insisted upon his divorcing her and returning to the lady he had jilted. This story tas in modern years been made tte subject of a very popular Jewisli opera, called " Sbulamith," in wliicli also the scene of tie marriageable girls dancing in the parks mentioned on pp. Istotli i. In the case of learned families, however, it was the custom for the fiance to go away for a few years to an academy to study. The pretty romance of R. Akiba is an excellent illustration of that custom. Akiba was a shepherd in the house of the rich Ben Kalba Shabua. An attachment was formed between the young shepherd and his master's daughter, and against her father's wish she married Akiba, on condition that he should go away for a number of years to study. Her father would not be reconciled to the match until, after a lapse of twenty- four years, Akiba returned full of glory, accompanied by twenty thousand disciples, when a reconciliation took place. Thus, the Midrash relates the case of a pious man who was married to a righteous woman, but on account of sterility they had to separate. The man then married a bad woman, and he afterwards became bad too; whilst the woman married a bad man, but, thanks to her good influence, he became good and upright. Zara 39a. During the time of the second Temple it was not unusual for people otherwise unqualified to attain to high office by bribing the authorities. Thus, Joshua b. Gamla obtained the office of High Priest, for which he was not fit, because he married a rich woman, Martha, the daughter of Baythus, who gave large sums of money to the authorities. The reverse also holds good. Eliezer xi. Shimeon says: In this con- nection the following anecdote is of interest: A Roman Emperor once said to R. Gamaliel that God was a thief, because He stole one of Adam's ribs whilst he was asleep. The Emperor's daughter, who was listening, casually remarked that during the previous night a burglar broke into her room and stole a silver vessel; but he left a golden one in its stead. The Emperor commented that he would not mind to have such thieves every night. He took away one of Adam's ribs, but gave him a wife instead. God, says the Midrash, considered from what part of Adam He should create Eve. The text gives " an infidel " instead of "an Emperor," but this is an alteration that was originally made by a censor. Because man is made from earth, which does not decompose, and woman is made from rib, which does decompose. Also man is more forgiving than woman, because earth is softer than bone. It was the custom in the time of the Talmud to sprinkle wine and nuts before a bridal procession as a sign of luck. This was, however, done only in summer, but not in winter, on account of the dirt. Zarali Abrahamg, op. One day some Roman soldiers seized the fowls, and were maltreated by the Jews in consequence. This was reported to the Government as a case of Jewish rebellion, and the Emperor came and destroyed the city and massacred its inhabitants. The Domestic Life of Husband and Wife. The Duties of a Wife to her Husband. This action exposed her bare arms because women used to wear wide sleeves , which were so clear and beautiful that they made a strong impression, even on Rava himself. Rava's wife thereupon be- came so jealous that she expelled the plaintiff from the court-house. A wife must do light domestic work even if she brought with her a hundred servants, for idleness is the mother of all evil. He got very angry with her, and sarcastically told her next time to cook a bushel of lentils, which she did! He then told her to bring him two hvtzine which may mean either candles or carrots, but he wanted carrots , and she brought him two candles. He then lost his temper, and said, " Go and break these candles against haba " which means m Aramaic a door. But a learned man of the name of Baba ben Buta happened to sit at the door, so she broke the candles over his head. When Baba asked her why she did that, she replied: Ashi with this sum without a written, signed and witnessed I. Kethubotli vi. Metzia 59a. Chisda was once ornamenting herself in the presence of her daughter-in-law. Huna bar Chinena, who was present at the time, remarked that it only becomes a young woman to adorn herself, but not an old one. To this R. Chisda cynically rejoined: A woman of sixty is as enthusiastic over the music of a cymbal,, and of dancing, as a girl of six. The Talmud says that those who were afflicted with poverty or dyspepsia in their life, and received those sufierings with resignation, will enjoy immunity from punishment in the world to come. Some Eabbis added also " one who has a shrew of a wife "; for, said they, it cannot be argued that such a wife can easily be divorced and therefore ought not to be included, since in some instances there may be a heavy money settlement on her which the husband cannot afiord to give her, or he may not wish to divorce her on account of their children. In the Egyptian village of Sechanja a man wanted to obtain a divorce from his wife without paying her the marriage settlement. So he invited his friends to a feast, and made them as well as his wife drunk: Ensuite, s'etant procure des temoins, il vint plaider ie divorce pour cause d'adultere. Mais I'un des juges du nom de Baba ben Butha dit a ses coUegues, ' Je tiens de mon maitre Shammai I'Ancien que I'albumine se coagule simplement sous I'influence de la chaleur, tandis que le sperme traverse les tissus en les empes- sant. Tlie earth, is strong, but the rocks are stronger. The rock is strong, but iron breaks it. Iron is strong, but fire can melt it. Fire is strong, but water quenches it. Water is strong, but the clouds absorb it. The clouds are strong, but the wind disperses them. The wind is strong, but a wall withstands it. A wall is strong, but a man destroys it. A man is strong, but trouble unnerves him. Trouble is strong, but wine removes it. Wine is strong, but sleep overcomes it. Sleep is strong, but illness dispels it. Illness is strong, but the Angel of Death conquers it. But a bad wife is worse than all these. Chiya had a shrew of a wife, but he treated her well, saying, " It is enough if our wives bring up our children and save us from sin. As an encouragement to the timid, the Midrash says: It is the few who go and do not return. Thus, many take a wife, and most of them prosper. It is only the few who stumble. In cases of sterility it used to be the custom for the women to adopt other people's children, or orphans, or foundlings. Thus, Sarah, Rachel, and Leah, who had been childless, gave their maid-servants to their hus- bands, and adopted their children. Pharaoh's daughter adopted Moses. Joshua asked, " Why is it written 2 Sam. Was it not Merab who bore them? This is meant to teach that he who brings up an orphan in his house is as if he were his father. Chanina drew the same moral from the verse in Ruth iv. The Bible enumerates the following degrees of kinship which, a man must not marry: A mother, a stepmother, sister, half-sister legitimate or not , granddaughter, aunt on the paternal side , daughter-in-law, brother's wife except in cases of levirate marriage , stepdaughter, wife's mother, step-granddaughter, or wife's sister dur- ing the wife's life. Marriage between sister and brother was common amongst the Egyptians, who were a highly cultured race. From a purely biological aspect there can, of course, be no reason whatever for not marrying a deceased brother's wife, since there is no blood-relationship be- tween them. Indeed, from a purely biological stand- point there can be no reason for interdicting the marriage of the closest relatives. The Ptolemys habitually practised incest, having married their sisters and other close relatives without any visibly evil results. They were neither sterile nor short-lived, and were not par- ticularly subject to disease. Some of them, moreover, were singularly sharp-witted. The only apparent reasons against such marriages are — 1. The marked difierences in age between parents and children see p. The risk of brothers and sisters marrying each other while yet too young. Why, however, the Jewish law forbids marriage be- tween nephew and aunt, and not between uncle and niece, it is not easy to explain. By the following fallacious a fortiori reasoning R. Jose ben Thadai of Tiberias wanted to prove that it is not permissible to marry any girl except she be the daughter of a widow or divorcee. Chanina answered: Such was the importance attached to children that, if a man died without issue, his widow was given to his brother for a wife, in order that " the firstborn which she beareth shall succeed in the name of his brother which is dead, that his name be not put out of Israel. When he pleaded inability to support them all, the widows replied that they would each support the house- hold for one month in the year. After three years had passed, and the first leap year month arrived, Eabbi had to support, in addition to the husband with his twelve wives, also a crowd of thirty-six children! There are several cases in which levirate was not allowed, viz. If a man married his brother's daughter which is permissible according to Jewish law , and he died child- less, the widow, being the daughter of the surviving brother, cannot be given to him as wife. If a man had another wife in addition to his fraternal niece, the surviving brother, who is the father of the first wife, must not marry either of the widows. The episode ends abruptly after a line from Ray that might be my favorite moment of the season. We get it: But advertising revenue helps support our journalism. To read our full stories, please turn off your ad blocker. We'd really appreciate it. Click the AdBlock button on your browser and select Don't run on pages on this domain. Filed Under: The Cochran Defense. Must Reads. How Do I Whitelist Observer? The reaction to my article highlighted a few things; There is a massive challenge in being openly Jewish but commenting on various socio-political events that have no Jewish or Israel reference. No matter the subject, the fact that I wear a kippah defines how I am perceived and what I am expected to say. But more concerning is the anger of South Africans. Black Monday was a clear indication that South Africans of all races and of all religions have had enough of being let down by a corrupt government that was elected to serve them. The country is a powder keg. Howard Feldman. South Africa's flag photo credit: And I look thinner in black. But no one really appreciated my sacrifice. Having many previous births Prolonged labor Infection Obesity Medications to induce labor Medications to stop contractions for preterm labor Use of forceps or vacuum-assisted delivery General anesthesia Other factors that may cause postpartum hemorrhage according to CHOP are: Tear in the cervix or vaginal tissue Tear in a uterine blood vessel Bleeding into a hidden tissue area or space in the pelvis. This mass of blood is called a hematoma, and it is usually located in the vulva or vagina. Blood clotting disorders, such as disseminated intravascular coagulation Placenta accreta. The placenta is abnormally attached to the inside of the uterus a condition that occurs in one in 2, births and is more common if the placenta is attached over a prior cesarean scar. Placenta increta. The placental tissues invade the muscle of the uterus. Placenta percreta. The placental tissues go all the way into the uterine muscle and may break through rupture. Uterine rupture, which is an uncommon event. Conditions that may increase the risk include surgery to remove fibroid benign tumors and a prior cesarean scar. What Are the Symptoms of Postpartum Hemorrhage? According to CHOP, the most common symptoms of postpartum hemorrhage are: Uncontrolled bleeding Decreased blood pressure Increased heart rate Decrease in the red blood cell count hematocrit welling and pain in tissues in the vaginal and perineal area, if bleeding is due to a hematoma How Is Postpartum Hemorrhage Treated? According to CHOP, treatment for postpartum hemorrhage can include: Medication to stimulate uterine contractions Manual massage of the uterus to stimulate contractions Removal of placental pieces that remain in the uterus Examination of the uterus and other pelvic tissues Bakri balloon or a Foley catheter to compress the bleeding inside the uterus. Packing the uterus with sponges and sterile materials may be used if a Bakri balloon or Foley catheter is not available. Tying-off of bleeding blood vessels using uterine compression sutures Surgery to open the abdomen to find the cause of the bleeding. Surgical removal of the uterus; in most cases, this is a last resort..

Jose's reply. Ezra Feldman Vagina next morning, however, the couples came back with broken heads and limbs, complaining of their misalliances. The noblewoman then confessed to R. Jose that Ezra Feldman Vagina was mistaken.

Hence it is said that " it is as hard to join two people in wedlock as it article source to divide the Red Ezra Feldman Vagina. Simeon ben Yocbai a. Ginsburg and otters it is tbe work of Isaac tie Blind and his disciples, between a.

A landowner, noticing that the population on his estate increased very slowly, had a list of Ezra Feldman Vagina inhabitants of his village brought to him, from which he picked out the names of boys over the Ezra Feldman Vagina of eighteen and of girls over sixteen. He then wrote, " John to marry Anna, Paul to marry Parashka," and so on.

Women young and old wept in every house.

Windise Xxx Watch Video Xxxxxxxxxxx Cn. Uterine rupture, which is an uncommon event. Conditions that may increase the risk include surgery to remove fibroid benign tumors and a prior cesarean scar. What Are the Symptoms of Postpartum Hemorrhage? According to CHOP, the most common symptoms of postpartum hemorrhage are: Uncontrolled bleeding Decreased blood pressure Increased heart rate Decrease in the red blood cell count hematocrit welling and pain in tissues in the vaginal and perineal area, if bleeding is due to a hematoma How Is Postpartum Hemorrhage Treated? According to CHOP, treatment for postpartum hemorrhage can include: Medication to stimulate uterine contractions Manual massage of the uterus to stimulate contractions Removal of placental pieces that remain in the uterus Examination of the uterus and other pelvic tissues Bakri balloon or a Foley catheter to compress the bleeding inside the uterus. Packing the uterus with sponges and sterile materials may be used if a Bakri balloon or Foley catheter is not available. Tying-off of bleeding blood vessels using uterine compression sutures Surgery to open the abdomen to find the cause of the bleeding. Surgical removal of the uterus; in most cases, this is a last resort. Injuries caused by untreated postpartum hemorrhaging include: Death Shock Stroke Heart attack Kidney failure Blood clotting disorders Women additionally may need to be placed on a ventilator or undergo a hysterectomy. Postpartum Hemorrhage. Hunt Transport James P. Faunes Jason A. Privacy Overview This website uses cookies so that we can provide you with the best user experience possible. You can adjust all of your cookie settings by navigating the tabs on the left hand side. Strictly Necessary Cookies Strictly Necessary Cookie should be enabled at all times so that we can save your preferences for cookie settings. Enable All Save Changes. Bridget once again remains absent wheresbridget. Ray was a bad kid, too. He says. Does Ray Donovan like what he does? Who he is? The episode ends abruptly after a line from Ray that might be my favorite moment of the season. We get it: But advertising revenue helps support our journalism. To read our full stories, please turn off your ad blocker. We'd really appreciate it. As regards mixed marriages in modern times, figures 1 See H. Graetz, " History of the Jews," vol. Fishberg, of. Thus, in Eastern Europe, where the Jews are both poor and very orthodox, mixed marriages are practically non-existent. On the other hand, in Western Europe and the United States, where the Jews and Gentries are in intimate social contact with the general popula- tion, such unions are very prevalent. In Berlia, for instance, in , 17 per cent, of all Jewesses and 27 per cent, of all Jews married Christians. In other words, every fourth Jew and every sixth Jewess married outside their faith. Euppin, " Die Juden der Gegenwart," pp. So much for facts. In order to analyze the influence that such intermarriages have had upon the racial purity of the Jewish child, we must pursue our inquiries in the following directions: In what respects did the Jewish racial characters differ from those of the peoples with whom they inter- married? To what extent did such mixed marriages take place? What is the fertility of mixed marriages? Is there such a thing as " prepotency " of the Jewish type — that is to say, does the Jewish blood possess, as it has been alleged to do, some mysterious power of transmitting the type uninterruptedly from generation to generation, in spite of admixture with other blood? Or, stated in Mendelian terminology, is the Jewish type a dominant or recessive feature? Lastly, how many of the offspring resulting from mixed unions remain within the Jewish fold? For it is obvious that, if the majority of such offspring leave the Jewish community, then the effect of these marriages upon the racial purity of the Jewish child cannot be very significant. I propose to discuss briefly each of the above questions. Racial Characters of the Jews and of the People with whom they intermarried. If it is between 79 and 81 it is called mesocephalic, and if over 81 the type of head is called br achy cephalic, or broad-headed. The prevaiUng type of complexion of modern Jews is dark, but there is a certain proportion 15 to 20 per cent. The striking resemblance between Jews and Armenians is strong evidence of their common ancestry from the Hittites. It is, however, not at all established that complexion is a racial trait. Ripley, " The Races of Europe," p. Sayce, op. Fishberg, however, who is a very energetic exponent of the theory of the racial impurity of Jews, points out that climate cannot be responsible for differentiation of pigmentation, since there are blonde Jews living in countries where the bulk of the population is brunette — e. Eipley, " The Races of Europe. The pre- vailing type among European Jews is meso- or sub- brachycephalic, with a cephalic index ranging between 80 and 83; but the Jews in the Caucasus are markedly brachycephalic with a cephalic index of , whilst those in Africa and Arabia are dolichocephalic C. If we accept it as a fact that head form is a purely racial character, then the great variety in the forms of Jewish heads obviously becomes a proof of their racial impurity. Some anthropologists, however, believe that the shape of the head is a character which is not deter- mined by heredity, but is subject to changes due to environment, such as intellectual activity and the pose of the body assumed in one's daily occupations, brachy- cephaly being assumed to be an accompaniment of great cerebral development. Indeed, Professor Boas measured the heads of 30, immigrants and their descendants in New York, and found that Eastern European Jews with brachycephalic heads become in the next generation dolichocephalic. Nathan xxv. Livi is quoted by Ripley as having shown that in Northern Italy the professional classes are longer-headed than the peasants, while in the south the opposite rule prevails. Ripley, " Tie Races of Europe," London, , p. Cherokee British Columbia Navajo According to Boas, the decrease with age is due to the growth of frontal sinuses and the occipital protuber- ance, especially in males. For similar reasons women are more brachycephalic than men. Extent to which Jews intermarried with Other Nations. Jacobs believes that the relative number of such mixed marriages was not great. I have already mentioned that, although no less than eight of the doctors of the Mishna up to A. Eliezer probably with the usual Talmudical exaggeration said that Ezra did not leave Babylon until he expurgated her from all racial impurity and made her as pure as fine flour. As regards the Chozars, it was pointed out by Jacobs that these proselytes formed the Karaite sect, which has remained altogether distinct from the rest of Euro- pean Jews. Indeed, all historical evidence seems to point to the fact that from the second to the nineteenth centuries there was very little intermixture between Jewish and Gentile bloods. Says Mr. Their blood has been untouched by conversion, even by intermarriage. Reinach, " the enormous growth of the Jewish nation in Egypt, Cyprus, and Cyrene, cannot be accounted for with- out supposing an abundant infusion of the Gentile blood. The fact that those statistics only apply to mar- riages contracted between two people whose creeds differ at the time of the marriage, but do not include unions between Jews and proselytes. In those countries where marriage between Jew and Christian is forbidden, many of the marriages in which one of the parties is styled as " free-thinker " are really mixed marriages. Hence mixed marriages probably occur to a considerably greater degree than is shown by statistics. Jacobs is, however, of opinion that probably not more than per cent, of all Jewish marriages throughout the world are mixed. The Fertility of Mixed Marriages. Superficially, statistics ' Quoted by James K. Hosmer in " The Jews," London, , p. Eeinacli, article " Judsei "in " Dictionnaire des An- tiquites," quoted by Fishberg, of. Pure Christian. Pure Jewish. This is a fallacious method, because the vast majority of births during any one year are due to marriages contracted in the previous twenty-five years, and, as the number of mixed marriages is continually increasing, it is obvious that the births of the year considered are reaUy due to a considerably smaller number of mixed marriages than are recorded for that year. Thus Fishberg quotes Ruppin to illustrate the fallacy of this method: In there were in Prussia only births to each mixed marriage contracted during that year, as against to each Jewish marriage. But, as the majority of these births are the results of marriages of about twenty-five years, we are led to investigate further. In there were only mixed marriages in Prussia, whilst in they reached Thon, quoted by Fisliberg. Another reason for their relative infecundity is the fact that the contracting parties of such marriages are relatively old. In other words, the Jewish race automatically rids itself of all foreign blood, and remains constantly pure in spite of intermarriage. Alleged Prepotency of Jewish Blood. But recent investigation has shown the opposite to be the case. Measurements taken of the second and third generations of American immigrant Jews show a natural elimination of the darker, shorter, and brachycephalic types, and a 1 " The Jews of To-Day," London, , p. Salaman is of opinion that this fact throws some light on the question of purity or otherwise of the Jews. The Jewish features are reces- sive to the Northern European including Teutonic , to the Italian, to the native Indian, to the Chinaman, and to the Negro. If, then, the Jew had freely inter- married with European races, it is obvious that the recessive Jewish facial characteristics would have been rapidly swamped, as has been the case, for instance, with the Falashas in Abyssinia, the Beni Israel in India, and with the Chinese Jews. But the very reverse is the case. The present Jewish features are the same as those depicted in Assyrian sculptures of B. There is one interesting fact which at first sight seems to militate against Salaman's conclusions regarding the racial purity of Jews. We should therefore expect that a 1 Fishberg, of. The great majority of the latter' s blue eyes are merely impure dominants. Evidence in favour of the purity of type is, according to Salaman, also available from Cohanim, who are the traditional descendants of the tribe of Aaron. All Jews of the name of Cohen, or some modification of it, are most probably such descendants. But people may be Cohanim without possessing the name of Cohen. No one, says Salaman very reasonably, who has no right to the title of Cohen by birth would assume the name, because it conveys no social distinction or advan- tage, but, on the contrary, is accompanied by consider- able disadvantages — e. Virchow, Arch. Schimmer, Mitt. Hence the conclusion is to be drawn that what- ever value may be ascribed to the purity of descent of Cohanim during the last 2, years must also be as- cribed to their brethren amongst whom they live. It is to be noted, however, that the purity of descent of the Cohanim is not only disputed by historians, but is greatly doubted even by orthodox casuists. As early as the fourteenth century Isaac ben Sheshet made a distinction between the real Cohanim whose descent could be traced from Aaron the High Priest, and others whose claim to the title could only be assumed. The same position was taken up in the sixteenth century by Samuel de Medina, and later by Solomon Loria, who says that during the long exile of the Jews it is almost certain that both Cohanim and Levites have failed to maintain the purity of their blood. The names of Jewish towns captured by the Egyptian King Shishak, recorded on the walls of the Temple of Karnak, are each surrounded with the head and shoulders of a prisoner, which Flinders Petrie has shown to be Amorite, and not Jewish, in type. This is evidence to the efEect that the Jewish type was so scantily represented as to be passed over by the Egyptian artist. The exact origin of the Amorites is a question of some interest. This Pan-Germanic school goes as far as to suggest that whatever good qualities the Jews possess they owe to the admixture in them of German blood through the fair-haired Amorites. Salaman's interesting observations, however, seem to prove definitely that if, as is more than probable, the fair features found amongst Jews are derived originally from Amorites, then the Amorites were not Germanic. For, whereas the German or Teutonic type is a dominant Mendelian character, Salaman, from an examination of the offspring of marriages between such non- Jewish- looking Jews and Jews who have a definitely pro- nounced cast of features, ascertained that this non-Jewish type found among them is recessive to the typically Jewish since all the children were typically Jewish. Hence, whatever the origin of this non-Jewish type may be, whether it is Amoritic or not, " it is at least quite certain that it cannot be Teutonic in origin. Salaman found that in marriages between typical Sephardic and Ashkenazic Jews, the physiognomy of the former is dominant, showing that not only is their claim of greater purity unjustified, but that on the contrary during the last years " the Ashkenazim can show a far cleaner bUl than the Sephardim, who are known to have absorbed in no small quantity both Moorish and Iberian blood. Thus, only about 10 per cent, remain definitely Jews and marry in the Jewish community. According to Euppin, the number of legitimate and illegitimate hybrid children born yearly into Jewish families in Prussia is about per cent, of the pure Jewish births, a proportion which, as he remarks, " must in the course of time considerably modify the race character of the Jews. Arguments Against. Arguments in Favour. Intermarriage in Biblical 1. These marriages were small and Talmudical times. Wholesale conversion to Ju- 2. These converts became daism in the Middle Ages — e. Marked differences in type 3. These differences are not — e. The following additional arguments seem to determine the balance in favour of the view that the Jewish race has remained practically pure: The Jewish face, being, as alleged, a recessive Mendelian character, would have been entirely swamped if intermarriage had taken place to any considerable extent. Cohanim, who are not allowed to marry proselytes, possess the same type of face as the rest of the Jews. We know, however, that in the time of Ezra even the priests intermarried see p. Mixed marriages are comparatively infertile, and the bulk of such ofispring leave the Jewish community. The sum total of the arguments is that, whilst there seelns to be very little doubt that the Jews are not a pure Semitic race, their ancient ancestors having freely intermarried with non-Semitic Amorites, Hittites, etc. If the smoke will go through her body and reach her nostrils, the fault of her sterility does not lie with her " Hippocrates, De nat. Physiology of Pregnancy. The Talmud and Midrash refer to the wonders of pregnancy in the following words: Sotah iv. Indeed, Avicenna taught that there was a direct venous communication between the uterus and the breasts, and on this theory some primitive nations forbid intercourse during lactation, lest the child swallow semen together with the milk. Thus, it was believed that there was a possibility of conception occurring in a bath in quo spermatizaverat homof' and Ben Sira was said to have been the son of a daughter of Jeremiah who became enceinte from her father in that way. Zera and R. Poppa were also said to have been conceived in such a manner. Benzew, in his Introduction to Ben Sira, disproves these allegations, but those who believe in such a possibility may explain the immaculate conception of Mary in a similar way. Indeed, the Rabbi who expressed himself as a believer in such an occurrence was Simon ben Zoma, a sage of the second century A. Preuss, op. The question that was asked of him, probably sarcastically, was whether the High Priest, who may only marry a virgin, was allowed to marry a pregnant virgin. Ben Zoma answered the question in the affirmative, because, said he, conception was possible in a bath in which a man had just before washed himself. Averroes, an Arabian physician who died in , records that an acquaintance of his, whose hona fides was beyond dispute, stated on her oath that " impregnata fuerat subito in balneo lavelli aquse calidse, in quo spermatizaverunt mali homines cum essent balnea ti in illo balneo. Even as late as the beginning of the eighteenth century this belief prevailed, and R. According to R. Eliezer, no woman becomes preg- nant as the result of a first intercourse. Gesclileclitslebeii in d. Tiirkei," Berlin, , ii. Medizin," pp. Period of Most Favourable Impregnation. In cases of single coitus it has been found that the duration of pregnancy was days from that date, but it is also known that the duration of pregnancy is days as counted from the end of the last menstrual period, and therefore the fruitful coitus probably takes place about six days from the end of menstruation. Prevention of conception was not allowed except in the three following cases: Galabin and G. Blacker, " The Practice of Midwifery," London, , p. The first symptom is Amenorrhoea. Child marriages were, how- ever, discouraged; at any rate, pregnancy was in those cases 'prevented. But the guests ridiculed the festivities, and said: He invited the chiefs of the land with their wives and babies, and Sarah gave all the infants to suck. The 1 Nidah 9a. Eden mentions a case in a woman fifty-nine years old, who had her menopause nine years previously. Ghisda's statement on p. Longings were another sign of pregnancy. These were believed to originate from the foetus in other words, it was considered a toxaemia of pregnancy , and hence, if they were for something which was ritually forbidden, they were taken as a bad sign for the future career of the child. Eden, " A Manual of Midwifery," 3rd edit. Chagiga ii. He advised that somebody should whisper into the woman's ear that it was the Day of Atonement. This was done, and the longing disappeared. She then gave birth to a son, who afterwards became the great Rabbi R. Hence, says the Talmud, the say- ing in Jeremiah i. Among the other signs of pregnancy were Foetal Movements. Schapiro quickening first occurs, in the case of a boy, at three months, and in the case of a girl at four months. Luke i. Sctapiro, " Obstetrique des Anciens Hebreux," Paris, , p. It is also said that God made the matriarchs sterile in order that they might preserve their beautiful figures and retain their husbands' afiection. That pregnancy increases the weight of a woman was well known. The Talmudic legislators laid down the law that a beast of burden that was hired to carry a man must not be used for carrying a woman. If, how- ever, it was hired to carry a woman, it might not only be used to carry a man, but it might be utilized for the purpose of carrying even a pregnant woman. The owner cannot claim any extra pay for the extra weight of the foetus because mother and foetus are one body. Pregnancy could not be diagnosed with certainty before three months, and hence a divorcee or a widow was not allowed to remarry before the expiration of three months from the date of her divorce or her hus- band's death, in order that one might be able to establish the paternity of the next child. The woman was allowed to walk on soft clay, and from the depth of the footprints her condition was ascertained, those of a woman with child being deeper on account of the weight of the foetus. Saphra says that it is not per- missible to examine a married woman, as this would profane her in the eyes of her husband. For the ballottement sign, see p. The diagnosis of pregnancy in later months, " when," as the Rabbis characteristically put it, " the belly is between her teeth," is of course very easy. Difierence in sex ought to make itself known during pregnancy by means of the following signs: With a male child quickening occurs earlier compare the views of Hippocrates and Aristotle, p. Twin pregnancy was probably diagnosed or suspected from the violence of the foetal movements and from the ' Yebamotli 4: The variation in length between and or days is accounted for by the fact that the semen may, as they believed, remain alive inside the uterus for three days but not longer without its fertilizing an ovum. Yebamoth iv. It is now known that, although the sper- matozoa reach the Fallopian tube where fertilization generally occurs in not more than twenty-four hours, yet it is possible for them to lie in wait for the ovum for a very considerable period, since living spermatozoa have been found in a human Fallopian tube removed three and a half weeks after the last act of sexual intercourse. Hippocrates " De natura pueri," cap. Since is an exact multiple of 7, therefore days from the earliest of those days, Wednesday, falls on a Tuesday, and days from the same day falls on Sunday. It is, however, to be noticed that, apart from the two authorities mentioned, most of the Rabbis in the Talmud reckoned the duration of pregnancy in months instead of days. They considered it to last nine months lunar. The " Song of Numbers," sung on the first two evenings 1 Eden, op. In the seventeenth century Rabbi Moses ben Itzchak Lehmann of Poland, knowing that, according to all reliable observations, pregnancy really lasts nearly days instead of nine lunar months i. The Talmud stated that a calf cannot conceive before the fourth year, whilst experience has shown that it can do so in the third year. After an absence of eleven months he received news that his wife gave birth to a child. The Rabbis of the time, to appease the aggrieved husband, declared the child as his own, basing their verdict on the statement of R. Zarah Jore Deah. Hippocrates and Aristotle also speak of eleven months' children; the latter, however, speaks sceptically about them. Diminished Period of Gestation. In order to render a child legitimate, a great Rabbi of the fifteenth century, R. Preuss, Of. Nidah I. The discovery of a placenta or of membranes is absolute evidence of recent delivery. The same applies to the presence of a Sandal see Chapter IX. On the other hand, absence of lochia is evidence that the woman has not been delivered recently. Compare Nidah 25 and Now therefore beware, I pray thee, and drink not wine nor strong drink, and eat not any unclean thing " Judg. Care of Mother. In Chapter II. I have shown what a considerable amount of knowledge the Jews in the times of the Bible and of the Talmud had of the influence of heredity upon the physical and moral health of the child; but the other part of eugenics — viz. They knew that as a rule a physically and mentally healthy stock cannot be reared from parents deficient in these respects, but they were also aware that a good breed can be improved, or at any rate maintained, by great care and attention. Special precautions are mentioned in the Bible to protect a pregnant woman from injury. A pregnant woman is to be sheltered from fright and bad news, because such are likely to bring on a miscarriage. Phineas's wife, when she was near term, on hearing that " the ark of G-od was taken, and that her father-in-law and her husband were dead, bowed herself and travailed, for her pains came upon her. The story told in Genesis about Jacob and his flock shows that it was believed by Jews at that time that mental impressions at the moment of conception had a profound influence on the appearance as well as the character of the offspring: Akiba that he suspected his consort of infidelity, because, in spite of the fact that both he and she were dark-coloured, she gave birth to a white child. But R. Akiba said that this was no absolute proof of unfaithful- ness, because she might during intercourse have looked at pictures of white faces on the wall, and the King acknow- ledged that the pictures on his walls were those of white faces. According to Empedocles, infants resemble the statues which the mothers found pleasure in looking at during pregnancy. It also tells of a pregnant ass in whom a veterinary surgeon cauterized a wound, and she afterwards gave birth to a donkey with a mole. Kohana narrates that, in order to breed the " red heifer " for ritual pur- poses, they used to pass a red cup in front of the cow at the moment of conception. Directions regarding the diet of an expectant mother are given both in the Bible and in the Talmud. Certain indigestible articles, and in special cases, such as when 1 T. Fienus, " De viribus imaginationis," , cited by Ballantyne, oj. Zarab 24a. Beraitba, x. Strong purga- tives were also prohibited for the same reason. Great fatigue, such as baking bread in the middle of the day when the sun is hot , working a handmill, and excessive drinking of strong beer, have deleterious effects upon the offspring. Religious Privileges. For the mineralogical identification of that stone see Preuss, " Bibl. If she has a special longing for pork, it must be given to her, because, says the Talmud, in such cases every commandment may be broken except those forbidding idolatry, incest, and murder. Criminal Law. According to an old law, the child was con- sidered to be a separate being, and the woman must not, therefore, be executed till after the birth of the child ; but according to a later law the fcstus was con- sidered only a part of the mother, and must therefore share her fate. Civil Law. Thee, that Thou hast made me as the clay; aud wilt Thou bring me into dust again? Hast Thou not poured me out as milk, and curdled me like cheese? Thou hast clothed me with skin and flesh, and hast fenced me with bones and sinews. Thou hast granted me life and favour, and Thy visitation hath pre- served my spirit " Job x. Much of it is fanciful speculation, but a great number of facts are mentioned which were based on actual observation and accord with modern science. There were many experienced observers, among whom was Abba Saul, a grave-digger; and a certain Mar Samuel was the most celebrated embryologist of his time. The uterus, says the Yalkut, is full of blood, and when fertilization takes place a white drop comes and meets the semen, and an embryo is created. But if a person destroys a piece of wood, although it is a potential article of furniture, he is yet not guilty of that sin; and, still, one who ' destroys seed,' which is only a potential human being, is like one who sheds blood. In this way he ascribes also to the Rabbis an adherence to the freformation theory of development see p. According to the ideas of that time, as we have already seen in Chapter VII. Thus, the white portions — viz. When the child dies, God takes away His portion to Himself, and leaves the remainder to his parents. Eav Pappa adds: Experiments on eggs of lower animals have shown that certain portions of the egg give rise to certain defimite portions of the adult organism. The primitive centre of formation of the embryo was supposed by some to be the head, whilst according to Abba Saul it was the umbilical vesicle, from which the parts of the embryo radiate in different directions. Schapiro in his " Obstetrique des Anciens H6breux," Paris, , p. He compares them to the two poles about which the universe rotates. The theory of epigenesis, which, it is hardly necessary to say, is the one universally accepted at the present time, is that a new formation of parts occurs out of unformed material not possessing at all the characters of the adult organism. The theory of preformation necessarily involved the further belief that the miniature organism inside the germ cell contained within itself, within still smaller limits, the individuals of the third generation, and so on ad infinitum ; so that the ovaries of Eve or the sperm cells of Adam contained encased within one another all the human beings that were ever born or that ever will ' Lev. This is called the " scatulation " or " pack- ing " theory of development. We shall refer to it again in the next chapter. Belief in preformation continued paramount till the end of the eighteenth century. The appearance of a forty-days embryo was, according to R. Abahu, as follows: Amram, the lower extremities can at that stage be distinguished as two purple threads. It is a wonderful thing, says the Midrash, that practi- cally within a finger's breadth there are several different kinds of fluids — viz. The tears are salt in order that the person who is crying should be irritated by them and stop his tears; otherwise the pro- longed bathing of the eyes in them would result in blindness. The secretion of the ears is waxy so as to intercept loud noises, which might injure the heart and cause death. The mucous nature of the nasal secretion intercepts smells which are dangerous to life. The salivary secretion is sweet so as to counteract the bad taste left in the mouth after vomiting. Eliezer said that a foetus inside the womb is like a nut placed inside a bladder of water. If you press your finger on the bladder the nut recedes. People were asked to wear black in support of the white farmers who have been attacked and murdered throughout the country. The situation is clearly horrendous but I was bothered by the fact that the initiative would send a message to black South Africans that their situation was not valued and not as important. I was bothered that the focus brought race back into a country that has struggled deeply with race identity and with apartheid and I was bothered that murder and violent crime were being viewed as being a concern of a targeted group, whereas in reality South Africans suffer daily from the most brutal and shocking acts of aggression towards them. And so I said that I would not be wearing black. The article had close to , reads in 24 hours. It was shared and reacted to thousands and thousands of times. My editor told me to not read the comments — and I tried not to. Most comments made me blush. And not in a good way..

Anna had hoped Ezra Feldman Vagina marry Gregory; Paul's parents had already had a talk with the Fedotofis about their girl who would soon be of age.

At the appointed time the nuptial processions, in Ezra Feldman Vagina case more like burial pro- cessions, went to the church. One of the house valets was sent to the church to report to the master here soon as the wedding ceremonies were over, but soon came back, cap in hand, pale and Ezra Feldman Vagina. Father continue reading that is, the Ezra Feldman Vagina ' asked her, " Dost thou agree?

Parashka's relatives and the priest surrounded the girl; her mother, weeping, fell on her knees before her, entreating her not to ruin the Ezra Feldman Vagina family. The girl continued to say, ' I won't,' but in a weaker and weaker voice, then in a whisper, and at last she stood Ezra Feldman Vagina.

King Solomon had a very beautiful daughter, and on reading her horoscope learned that she was destined to marry an extremely poor man. In prder to prevent such a thing from happening, he sent her off to an island where he had a special tower built for her, and had her guarded by Ezra Feldman Vagina special watchers. After some time, that poor man who was decreed to be her future husband was walking in the fields barefooted and very hungry, when at the approach of evening he saw the carcass of an ox lying in the road.

In order to warm himself, he put himself inside the carcass and fell asleep, when a big bird came and carried the carcass away, and deposited it on the top of the tower in which King Solomon's daughter resided. In the morn- ing the young Https://nlawa.me/shorts/video24529-tidyq.php met on the roof.

The young lady took the youth inside her chamber and had him washed and dressed. Source then became so handsome that she fell in love with him and married him. When King Solomon heard this he was very glad, and said, " Blessed be the Lord, who assigns a husband to every woman! The importance of keeping a promise of marriage is illustrated by Ezra Feldman Vagina following romance: A pretty maiden was out for a walk in the Ezra Feldman Vagina, and lost her way.

She became very thirsty, when she saw a well in the distance.

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Bubeij Ezra Feldman Vagina, She tried to come up again, but could not. She began to cry, when a youth who passed by heard her voice and rescued her. They Ezra Feldman Vagina in love with each other and pledged their troth. The girl kept her promise and refused to marry anybody, and when she was pressed click to see more her parents to do so she affected insanity.

In the meantime the youth forgot his promise, took himself Ezra Feldman Vagina wife and had a child. One day the child was left Ezra Feldman Vagina for a moment asleep in its cradle, and when its mother returned she was horrified to find her infant dead, its little throat pierced by the fangs of a weasel.

After a while his wife presented him with another boy, who was carefully watched that no danger might befall him, but one afternoon he ran out into Ezra Feldman Vagina garden un- observed, and fell into a well and was drowned.

The broken-hearted mother, guessing that her affliction was due to some mystery in the past career of her husband, taxed him with it.

He told her of the incident with the maiden in the well, and she insisted upon his divorcing her and returning to the lady he had jilted. This Ezra Feldman Vagina tas in modern years been made tte subject of a Ezra Feldman Vagina popular Jewisli opera, called " Sbulamith," in wliicli also the scene of tie marriageable girls dancing in the parks mentioned on pp.

Ezra Feldman Vagina

Istotli i. Ezra Feldman Vagina the case of learned families, however, it was the custom for the fiance to go away for a few years to an academy to study. The Ezra Feldman Vagina romance of Ezra Feldman Vagina. Akiba is an excellent illustration of that custom. Akiba was a shepherd in the house of the rich Ben Kalba Shabua. An attachment was formed between the young shepherd and his master's daughter, and against her father's wish she married Akiba, on condition that he should go away for a number of years to study.

Her father would not be reconciled to the match until, Ezra Feldman Vagina a lapse of twenty- four years, Akiba returned full of Ezra Feldman Vagina, accompanied by twenty thousand disciples, when a reconciliation took place. Thus, the Midrash relates the case of a pious man who was married to a righteous woman, but on account of sterility they had to separate.

The man then married a bad woman, and he afterwards became bad too; whilst the woman married a bad man, but, thanks to her good influence, he became good and upright. Zara 39a. During the time of the second Temple it was not unusual for people otherwise unqualified to attain to high office by see more the authorities. Thus, Joshua b. Gamla obtained Ezra Feldman Vagina office of High Priest, for which he was not fit, because he married a rich woman, Martha, the daughter of Baythus, who gave large sums of money to the authorities.

The reverse also holds good. Eliezer xi. Shimeon says: In this con- nection the following anecdote is of interest: A Roman Emperor once said to R. Gamaliel that God was a thief, because Ezra Feldman Vagina stole one of Adam's ribs whilst he was asleep. The Emperor's daughter, who was listening, casually remarked that during the previous night a burglar broke into her room and stole a silver vessel; but he read article a golden one in its stead.

The Emperor commented that he would not mind to have such Ezra Feldman Vagina every night. He took away one of Adam's ribs, but gave him a wife instead. Ezra Feldman Vagina, says the Midrash, considered from what part Ezra Feldman Vagina Adam He should create Eve. The text gives " an infidel " instead of "an Emperor," but this is an alteration that was originally made by a censor.

Postpartum Hemorrhage: Should I Worry About Losing Too Much Blood from Childbirth?

Because man is made from earth, which does not decompose, and woman is made from rib, which does decompose. Also man is more forgiving than woman, because earth is softer than bone. It was the custom in the time of the Talmud to sprinkle wine and nuts before a bridal procession as a sign of luck.

Ezra Feldman Vagina was, however, done only in summer, but not in winter, on account of the dirt. Zarali Abrahamg, op. One day some Roman soldiers Ezra Feldman Vagina the fowls, and were maltreated by the Jews in consequence.

This Ezra Feldman Vagina reported to the Government as a case of Jewish rebellion, and the Emperor came and destroyed the city and massacred its inhabitants. The Domestic Life of Husband and Wife. The Duties of a Wife to her Husband. This action exposed her bare arms because women used to wear wide sleeveswhich were so clear and beautiful that they made a strong impression, even on Rava himself. Rava's wife thereupon be- came so jealous that she expelled the plaintiff from the court-house.

A wife must do light domestic work even if she brought with her a hundred servants, for idleness is the mother of all evil.

He Ezra Feldman Vagina very angry with her, and sarcastically told her next time to cook a bushel Ezra Feldman Vagina lentils, which she did! He then told her to bring him two hvtzine which may mean either candles or carrots, but he wanted carrotsand she brought him two candles. He then lost Ezra Feldman Vagina temper, and said, " Go and break these candles against haba " which means m Aramaic a door. But a learned man of the name of Baba ben Buta happened to sit at the door, so she broke the candles over his head.

Ezra Feldman Vagina Baba asked her source she did that, she replied: Ashi with this sum without a Girl Pro, signed and witnessed I. Kethubotli vi. Metzia 59a.

Chisda was once ornamenting herself in the presence of her daughter-in-law. Huna bar Chinena, who was present at the Ezra Feldman Vagina, remarked that it only becomes a young woman to adorn herself, but not an old one. To this R. Chisda cynically rejoined: A woman of sixty is as enthusiastic over the music of Ezra Feldman Vagina cymbal, and of dancing, Ezra Feldman Vagina a girl of six.

Tittyfuck japanese Watch Video Sex positions. Sleep is strong, but illness dispels it. Illness is strong, but the Angel of Death conquers it. But a bad wife is worse than all these. Chiya had a shrew of a wife, but he treated her well, saying, " It is enough if our wives bring up our children and save us from sin. As an encouragement to the timid, the Midrash says: It is the few who go and do not return. Thus, many take a wife, and most of them prosper. It is only the few who stumble. In cases of sterility it used to be the custom for the women to adopt other people's children, or orphans, or foundlings. Thus, Sarah, Rachel, and Leah, who had been childless, gave their maid-servants to their hus- bands, and adopted their children. Pharaoh's daughter adopted Moses. Joshua asked, " Why is it written 2 Sam. Was it not Merab who bore them? This is meant to teach that he who brings up an orphan in his house is as if he were his father. Chanina drew the same moral from the verse in Ruth iv. The Bible enumerates the following degrees of kinship which, a man must not marry: A mother, a stepmother, sister, half-sister legitimate or not , granddaughter, aunt on the paternal side , daughter-in-law, brother's wife except in cases of levirate marriage , stepdaughter, wife's mother, step-granddaughter, or wife's sister dur- ing the wife's life. Marriage between sister and brother was common amongst the Egyptians, who were a highly cultured race. From a purely biological aspect there can, of course, be no reason whatever for not marrying a deceased brother's wife, since there is no blood-relationship be- tween them. Indeed, from a purely biological stand- point there can be no reason for interdicting the marriage of the closest relatives. The Ptolemys habitually practised incest, having married their sisters and other close relatives without any visibly evil results. They were neither sterile nor short-lived, and were not par- ticularly subject to disease. Some of them, moreover, were singularly sharp-witted. The only apparent reasons against such marriages are — 1. The marked difierences in age between parents and children see p. The risk of brothers and sisters marrying each other while yet too young. Why, however, the Jewish law forbids marriage be- tween nephew and aunt, and not between uncle and niece, it is not easy to explain. By the following fallacious a fortiori reasoning R. Jose ben Thadai of Tiberias wanted to prove that it is not permissible to marry any girl except she be the daughter of a widow or divorcee. Chanina answered: Such was the importance attached to children that, if a man died without issue, his widow was given to his brother for a wife, in order that " the firstborn which she beareth shall succeed in the name of his brother which is dead, that his name be not put out of Israel. When he pleaded inability to support them all, the widows replied that they would each support the house- hold for one month in the year. After three years had passed, and the first leap year month arrived, Eabbi had to support, in addition to the husband with his twelve wives, also a crowd of thirty-six children! There are several cases in which levirate was not allowed, viz. If a man married his brother's daughter which is permissible according to Jewish law , and he died child- less, the widow, being the daughter of the surviving brother, cannot be given to him as wife. If a man had another wife in addition to his fraternal niece, the surviving brother, who is the father of the first wife, must not marry either of the widows. If a King dies without male issue, his brother is not to marry his widow according to levirate law, nor is a King to perform that duty in the case of his brother's widow. Further, if the widow is impotent or her dead husband suffered from impotence, levirate marriage is not allowed. Again, if the man is suffering from a contagious disease like leprosy, or has an occupation like tanning which might conceivably be objectionable to the widow, this marriage is not to take place. The ceremony of levirate has now been given up alto- gether in favour of Chalitzah. Smith, " Kinship," etc. Letourneau, " Evolution of Marriage," p. Stareke, "Primitive Family," pp. If levirate was impossible on account of unwillingness of the brother, " then shall his brother's wife come unto him in the presence of the elders, and loose his shoe from off his foot, and spit in front of him, and say. So shall it be done unto that man that will not build up his brother's house. The question of the intermarriage between Jews and Gentiles is one of considerable interest from the point of view of this book. If, for instance, we could show that the admission of non- Jewish blood by intermarriage from the earliest time to the present day is a negligible quantity, then we might be justified in believing that the biostatic and anthro- pological factors peculiar to the Jewish child are pure racial characters, possibly modified to some extent by influences of environment. If, however, the degree of prevalence of intermarriage has been of such an extent as to cause a considerable infusion of non-Jewish racial elements into Jewish veins, then we must conclude that any difierences that may exist between the char- acters of Jewish and non-Jewish children have very little to do with the question of race — are not, that is to say, due to anatomical or physiological peculiarities, but are rather in the main the result of social, religious, and political environment. Thus, to mention only a few, Hagar, a wife of Abraham, was an Egyptian, and Zipporah, the wife of Moses, was a Midianite. David was a descendant of Ruth, a Moabite woman, and his son Solomon " loved many strange women For they have taken of their daughters for themselves, and for their sons. Thus, Joseph Jacobs mentions that, of the doctors of the Mishna up to a. Meir, Schemjah, and Abtalion ; but he adds that, of the 1, doctors of the Gemara from a. Inst, Eeference to Baba Bathra a. During the Middle Ages, again, intermarriage between Jews and Gentiles was taking place, in spite of the feeling of hostility between Jews and Christians in those times, and notwithstanding the prohibition of such unions by both Synagogue and Church. The greatest number of those marriages took place in Southern Europe, especially Spain, Portugal, and Gaul. Indeed, the authorities who maintain that the Jews are not a pure race go to the length of saying that " the Jews in Southern Russia, Hungary, Roumania, and part of Poland, are mainly descendants of Chozars who intermarried with Jews. As regards mixed marriages in modern times, figures 1 See H. Graetz, " History of the Jews," vol. Fishberg, of. Thus, in Eastern Europe, where the Jews are both poor and very orthodox, mixed marriages are practically non-existent. On the other hand, in Western Europe and the United States, where the Jews and Gentries are in intimate social contact with the general popula- tion, such unions are very prevalent. In Berlia, for instance, in , 17 per cent, of all Jewesses and 27 per cent, of all Jews married Christians. In other words, every fourth Jew and every sixth Jewess married outside their faith. Euppin, " Die Juden der Gegenwart," pp. So much for facts. In order to analyze the influence that such intermarriages have had upon the racial purity of the Jewish child, we must pursue our inquiries in the following directions: In what respects did the Jewish racial characters differ from those of the peoples with whom they inter- married? To what extent did such mixed marriages take place? What is the fertility of mixed marriages? Is there such a thing as " prepotency " of the Jewish type — that is to say, does the Jewish blood possess, as it has been alleged to do, some mysterious power of transmitting the type uninterruptedly from generation to generation, in spite of admixture with other blood? Or, stated in Mendelian terminology, is the Jewish type a dominant or recessive feature? Lastly, how many of the offspring resulting from mixed unions remain within the Jewish fold? For it is obvious that, if the majority of such offspring leave the Jewish community, then the effect of these marriages upon the racial purity of the Jewish child cannot be very significant. I propose to discuss briefly each of the above questions. Racial Characters of the Jews and of the People with whom they intermarried. If it is between 79 and 81 it is called mesocephalic, and if over 81 the type of head is called br achy cephalic, or broad-headed. The prevaiUng type of complexion of modern Jews is dark, but there is a certain proportion 15 to 20 per cent. The striking resemblance between Jews and Armenians is strong evidence of their common ancestry from the Hittites. It is, however, not at all established that complexion is a racial trait. Ripley, " The Races of Europe," p. Sayce, op. Fishberg, however, who is a very energetic exponent of the theory of the racial impurity of Jews, points out that climate cannot be responsible for differentiation of pigmentation, since there are blonde Jews living in countries where the bulk of the population is brunette — e. Eipley, " The Races of Europe. The pre- vailing type among European Jews is meso- or sub- brachycephalic, with a cephalic index ranging between 80 and 83; but the Jews in the Caucasus are markedly brachycephalic with a cephalic index of , whilst those in Africa and Arabia are dolichocephalic C. If we accept it as a fact that head form is a purely racial character, then the great variety in the forms of Jewish heads obviously becomes a proof of their racial impurity. Some anthropologists, however, believe that the shape of the head is a character which is not deter- mined by heredity, but is subject to changes due to environment, such as intellectual activity and the pose of the body assumed in one's daily occupations, brachy- cephaly being assumed to be an accompaniment of great cerebral development. Indeed, Professor Boas measured the heads of 30, immigrants and their descendants in New York, and found that Eastern European Jews with brachycephalic heads become in the next generation dolichocephalic. Nathan xxv. Livi is quoted by Ripley as having shown that in Northern Italy the professional classes are longer-headed than the peasants, while in the south the opposite rule prevails. Ripley, " Tie Races of Europe," London, , p. Cherokee British Columbia Navajo According to Boas, the decrease with age is due to the growth of frontal sinuses and the occipital protuber- ance, especially in males. For similar reasons women are more brachycephalic than men. Extent to which Jews intermarried with Other Nations. Jacobs believes that the relative number of such mixed marriages was not great. I have already mentioned that, although no less than eight of the doctors of the Mishna up to A. Eliezer probably with the usual Talmudical exaggeration said that Ezra did not leave Babylon until he expurgated her from all racial impurity and made her as pure as fine flour. As regards the Chozars, it was pointed out by Jacobs that these proselytes formed the Karaite sect, which has remained altogether distinct from the rest of Euro- pean Jews. Indeed, all historical evidence seems to point to the fact that from the second to the nineteenth centuries there was very little intermixture between Jewish and Gentile bloods. Says Mr. Their blood has been untouched by conversion, even by intermarriage. Reinach, " the enormous growth of the Jewish nation in Egypt, Cyprus, and Cyrene, cannot be accounted for with- out supposing an abundant infusion of the Gentile blood. The fact that those statistics only apply to mar- riages contracted between two people whose creeds differ at the time of the marriage, but do not include unions between Jews and proselytes. In those countries where marriage between Jew and Christian is forbidden, many of the marriages in which one of the parties is styled as " free-thinker " are really mixed marriages. Hence mixed marriages probably occur to a considerably greater degree than is shown by statistics. Jacobs is, however, of opinion that probably not more than per cent, of all Jewish marriages throughout the world are mixed. The Fertility of Mixed Marriages. Superficially, statistics ' Quoted by James K. Hosmer in " The Jews," London, , p. Eeinacli, article " Judsei "in " Dictionnaire des An- tiquites," quoted by Fishberg, of. Pure Christian. Pure Jewish. This is a fallacious method, because the vast majority of births during any one year are due to marriages contracted in the previous twenty-five years, and, as the number of mixed marriages is continually increasing, it is obvious that the births of the year considered are reaUy due to a considerably smaller number of mixed marriages than are recorded for that year. Thus Fishberg quotes Ruppin to illustrate the fallacy of this method: In there were in Prussia only births to each mixed marriage contracted during that year, as against to each Jewish marriage. But, as the majority of these births are the results of marriages of about twenty-five years, we are led to investigate further. In there were only mixed marriages in Prussia, whilst in they reached Thon, quoted by Fisliberg. Another reason for their relative infecundity is the fact that the contracting parties of such marriages are relatively old. In other words, the Jewish race automatically rids itself of all foreign blood, and remains constantly pure in spite of intermarriage. Alleged Prepotency of Jewish Blood. But recent investigation has shown the opposite to be the case. Measurements taken of the second and third generations of American immigrant Jews show a natural elimination of the darker, shorter, and brachycephalic types, and a 1 " The Jews of To-Day," London, , p. Salaman is of opinion that this fact throws some light on the question of purity or otherwise of the Jews. The Jewish features are reces- sive to the Northern European including Teutonic , to the Italian, to the native Indian, to the Chinaman, and to the Negro. If, then, the Jew had freely inter- married with European races, it is obvious that the recessive Jewish facial characteristics would have been rapidly swamped, as has been the case, for instance, with the Falashas in Abyssinia, the Beni Israel in India, and with the Chinese Jews. But the very reverse is the case. The present Jewish features are the same as those depicted in Assyrian sculptures of B. There is one interesting fact which at first sight seems to militate against Salaman's conclusions regarding the racial purity of Jews. We should therefore expect that a 1 Fishberg, of. The great majority of the latter' s blue eyes are merely impure dominants. Evidence in favour of the purity of type is, according to Salaman, also available from Cohanim, who are the traditional descendants of the tribe of Aaron. All Jews of the name of Cohen, or some modification of it, are most probably such descendants. But people may be Cohanim without possessing the name of Cohen. No one, says Salaman very reasonably, who has no right to the title of Cohen by birth would assume the name, because it conveys no social distinction or advan- tage, but, on the contrary, is accompanied by consider- able disadvantages — e. Virchow, Arch. Schimmer, Mitt. Hence the conclusion is to be drawn that what- ever value may be ascribed to the purity of descent of Cohanim during the last 2, years must also be as- cribed to their brethren amongst whom they live. It is to be noted, however, that the purity of descent of the Cohanim is not only disputed by historians, but is greatly doubted even by orthodox casuists. As early as the fourteenth century Isaac ben Sheshet made a distinction between the real Cohanim whose descent could be traced from Aaron the High Priest, and others whose claim to the title could only be assumed. The same position was taken up in the sixteenth century by Samuel de Medina, and later by Solomon Loria, who says that during the long exile of the Jews it is almost certain that both Cohanim and Levites have failed to maintain the purity of their blood. The names of Jewish towns captured by the Egyptian King Shishak, recorded on the walls of the Temple of Karnak, are each surrounded with the head and shoulders of a prisoner, which Flinders Petrie has shown to be Amorite, and not Jewish, in type. This is evidence to the efEect that the Jewish type was so scantily represented as to be passed over by the Egyptian artist. The exact origin of the Amorites is a question of some interest. This Pan-Germanic school goes as far as to suggest that whatever good qualities the Jews possess they owe to the admixture in them of German blood through the fair-haired Amorites. Salaman's interesting observations, however, seem to prove definitely that if, as is more than probable, the fair features found amongst Jews are derived originally from Amorites, then the Amorites were not Germanic. For, whereas the German or Teutonic type is a dominant Mendelian character, Salaman, from an examination of the offspring of marriages between such non- Jewish- looking Jews and Jews who have a definitely pro- nounced cast of features, ascertained that this non-Jewish type found among them is recessive to the typically Jewish since all the children were typically Jewish. Hence, whatever the origin of this non-Jewish type may be, whether it is Amoritic or not, " it is at least quite certain that it cannot be Teutonic in origin. Salaman found that in marriages between typical Sephardic and Ashkenazic Jews, the physiognomy of the former is dominant, showing that not only is their claim of greater purity unjustified, but that on the contrary during the last years " the Ashkenazim can show a far cleaner bUl than the Sephardim, who are known to have absorbed in no small quantity both Moorish and Iberian blood. Thus, only about 10 per cent, remain definitely Jews and marry in the Jewish community. According to Euppin, the number of legitimate and illegitimate hybrid children born yearly into Jewish families in Prussia is about per cent, of the pure Jewish births, a proportion which, as he remarks, " must in the course of time considerably modify the race character of the Jews. Arguments Against. Arguments in Favour. Intermarriage in Biblical 1. These marriages were small and Talmudical times. Wholesale conversion to Ju- 2. These converts became daism in the Middle Ages — e. Marked differences in type 3. These differences are not — e. The following additional arguments seem to determine the balance in favour of the view that the Jewish race has remained practically pure: The Jewish face, being, as alleged, a recessive Mendelian character, would have been entirely swamped if intermarriage had taken place to any considerable extent. Cohanim, who are not allowed to marry proselytes, possess the same type of face as the rest of the Jews. We know, however, that in the time of Ezra even the priests intermarried see p. Mixed marriages are comparatively infertile, and the bulk of such ofispring leave the Jewish community. The sum total of the arguments is that, whilst there seelns to be very little doubt that the Jews are not a pure Semitic race, their ancient ancestors having freely intermarried with non-Semitic Amorites, Hittites, etc. If the smoke will go through her body and reach her nostrils, the fault of her sterility does not lie with her " Hippocrates, De nat. Physiology of Pregnancy. The Talmud and Midrash refer to the wonders of pregnancy in the following words: Sotah iv. Indeed, Avicenna taught that there was a direct venous communication between the uterus and the breasts, and on this theory some primitive nations forbid intercourse during lactation, lest the child swallow semen together with the milk. Thus, it was believed that there was a possibility of conception occurring in a bath in quo spermatizaverat homof' and Ben Sira was said to have been the son of a daughter of Jeremiah who became enceinte from her father in that way. Zera and R. Poppa were also said to have been conceived in such a manner. Benzew, in his Introduction to Ben Sira, disproves these allegations, but those who believe in such a possibility may explain the immaculate conception of Mary in a similar way. Indeed, the Rabbi who expressed himself as a believer in such an occurrence was Simon ben Zoma, a sage of the second century A. Preuss, op. The question that was asked of him, probably sarcastically, was whether the High Priest, who may only marry a virgin, was allowed to marry a pregnant virgin. Ben Zoma answered the question in the affirmative, because, said he, conception was possible in a bath in which a man had just before washed himself. Averroes, an Arabian physician who died in , records that an acquaintance of his, whose hona fides was beyond dispute, stated on her oath that " impregnata fuerat subito in balneo lavelli aquse calidse, in quo spermatizaverunt mali homines cum essent balnea ti in illo balneo. Even as late as the beginning of the eighteenth century this belief prevailed, and R. According to R. Eliezer, no woman becomes preg- nant as the result of a first intercourse. Gesclileclitslebeii in d. Tiirkei," Berlin, , ii. Medizin," pp. Period of Most Favourable Impregnation. In cases of single coitus it has been found that the duration of pregnancy was days from that date, but it is also known that the duration of pregnancy is days as counted from the end of the last menstrual period, and therefore the fruitful coitus probably takes place about six days from the end of menstruation. Prevention of conception was not allowed except in the three following cases: Galabin and G. Blacker, " The Practice of Midwifery," London, , p. The first symptom is Amenorrhoea. Child marriages were, how- ever, discouraged; at any rate, pregnancy was in those cases 'prevented. But the guests ridiculed the festivities, and said: He invited the chiefs of the land with their wives and babies, and Sarah gave all the infants to suck. The 1 Nidah 9a. Eden mentions a case in a woman fifty-nine years old, who had her menopause nine years previously. Ghisda's statement on p. Longings were another sign of pregnancy. These were believed to originate from the foetus in other words, it was considered a toxaemia of pregnancy , and hence, if they were for something which was ritually forbidden, they were taken as a bad sign for the future career of the child. Eden, " A Manual of Midwifery," 3rd edit. Chagiga ii. He advised that somebody should whisper into the woman's ear that it was the Day of Atonement. This was done, and the longing disappeared. She then gave birth to a son, who afterwards became the great Rabbi R. Hence, says the Talmud, the say- ing in Jeremiah i. Among the other signs of pregnancy were Foetal Movements. Schapiro quickening first occurs, in the case of a boy, at three months, and in the case of a girl at four months. Luke i. Sctapiro, " Obstetrique des Anciens Hebreux," Paris, , p. It is also said that God made the matriarchs sterile in order that they might preserve their beautiful figures and retain their husbands' afiection. That pregnancy increases the weight of a woman was well known. The Talmudic legislators laid down the law that a beast of burden that was hired to carry a man must not be used for carrying a woman. If, how- ever, it was hired to carry a woman, it might not only be used to carry a man, but it might be utilized for the purpose of carrying even a pregnant woman. The owner cannot claim any extra pay for the extra weight of the foetus because mother and foetus are one body. Pregnancy could not be diagnosed with certainty before three months, and hence a divorcee or a widow was not allowed to remarry before the expiration of three months from the date of her divorce or her hus- band's death, in order that one might be able to establish the paternity of the next child. The woman was allowed to walk on soft clay, and from the depth of the footprints her condition was ascertained, those of a woman with child being deeper on account of the weight of the foetus. Saphra says that it is not per- missible to examine a married woman, as this would profane her in the eyes of her husband. For the ballottement sign, see p. The diagnosis of pregnancy in later months, " when," as the Rabbis characteristically put it, " the belly is between her teeth," is of course very easy. Difierence in sex ought to make itself known during pregnancy by means of the following signs: With a male child quickening occurs earlier compare the views of Hippocrates and Aristotle, p. Twin pregnancy was probably diagnosed or suspected from the violence of the foetal movements and from the ' Yebamotli 4: The variation in length between and or days is accounted for by the fact that the semen may, as they believed, remain alive inside the uterus for three days but not longer without its fertilizing an ovum. Yebamoth iv. It is now known that, although the sper- matozoa reach the Fallopian tube where fertilization generally occurs in not more than twenty-four hours, yet it is possible for them to lie in wait for the ovum for a very considerable period, since living spermatozoa have been found in a human Fallopian tube removed three and a half weeks after the last act of sexual intercourse. Hippocrates " De natura pueri," cap. Since is an exact multiple of 7, therefore days from the earliest of those days, Wednesday, falls on a Tuesday, and days from the same day falls on Sunday. It is, however, to be noticed that, apart from the two authorities mentioned, most of the Rabbis in the Talmud reckoned the duration of pregnancy in months instead of days. They considered it to last nine months lunar. The " Song of Numbers," sung on the first two evenings 1 Eden, op. In the seventeenth century Rabbi Moses ben Itzchak Lehmann of Poland, knowing that, according to all reliable observations, pregnancy really lasts nearly days instead of nine lunar months i. The Talmud stated that a calf cannot conceive before the fourth year, whilst experience has shown that it can do so in the third year. After an absence of eleven months he received news that his wife gave birth to a child. The Rabbis of the time, to appease the aggrieved husband, declared the child as his own, basing their verdict on the statement of R. Zarah Jore Deah. Hippocrates and Aristotle also speak of eleven months' children; the latter, however, speaks sceptically about them. Diminished Period of Gestation. In order to render a child legitimate, a great Rabbi of the fifteenth century, R. Preuss, Of. Nidah I. The discovery of a placenta or of membranes is absolute evidence of recent delivery. The same applies to the presence of a Sandal see Chapter IX. On the other hand, absence of lochia is evidence that the woman has not been delivered recently. Compare Nidah 25 and Now therefore beware, I pray thee, and drink not wine nor strong drink, and eat not any unclean thing " Judg. Care of Mother. Injuries caused by untreated postpartum hemorrhaging include:. The lawsuits filed on behalf of postpartum hemorrhage victims and families seek damages for medical bills, loss of earning potential, pain and suffering, and loss of the pleasures of life. Our website, like many others, uses small files called cookies to help us customize your experience. To learn more about the cookies our website is using or to switch them off, go to the cookies settings page. To review our privacy policy click here. This website uses cookies so that we can provide you with the best user experience possible. To find out more about the cookies we use, see our Privacy Policy. A single cookie will be used in your browser to remember your preference not to be tracked. 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For Adblock: For Adblock Plus on Google Chrome: The most obvious was that if one took the time to read what I wrote, I was tremendously supportive of the plight of the farmers. But the old South African flags at the protests, and the fact that in advance people were asked to leave them at home, proved the dishonesty of the approach. It was plain and simply about white farmers. Which is actually okay. I just felt uncomfortable with it. The reaction to my article highlighted a few things; There is a massive challenge in being openly Jewish but commenting on various socio-political events that have no Jewish or Israel reference. No matter the subject, the fact that I wear a kippah defines how I am perceived and what I am expected to say. But more concerning is the anger of South Africans. Black Monday was a clear indication that South Africans of all races and of all religions have had enough of being let down by a corrupt government that was elected to serve them..

The Talmud says that those who were afflicted Ezra Feldman Vagina poverty or dyspepsia in their life, and received Ezra Feldman Vagina sufierings with resignation, will enjoy immunity from punishment in the world to come.

Some Eabbis added also " one Ezra Feldman Vagina has a shrew of a wife "; for, said they, it cannot be argued that such a wife can easily be divorced and therefore ought not to be included, since in some instances there may be a heavy money settlement on her which the Ezra Feldman Vagina cannot afiord to give her, or he may not wish to divorce her on account of their children.

In the Egyptian village of Sechanja a man wanted to obtain a divorce from his wife without paying her the marriage settlement. So he invited his friends to a feast, and made them as well as his wife drunk: Ezra Feldman Vagina, s'etant procure des temoins, il vint plaider ie Ezra Feldman Vagina pour cause d'adultere.

Mais I'un des juges du nom de Baba ben Butha dit a ses coUegues, ' Je tiens de mon maitre Shammai I'Ancien que I'albumine se coagule simplement sous I'influence de la chaleur, tandis que le sperme traverse les tissus en les empes- sant.

Tlie earth, is Ezra Feldman Vagina, but Ezra Feldman Vagina rocks are stronger. The rock is strong, but iron breaks it. Iron is strong, but fire can melt it. Fire is strong, but water quenches it. Water is strong, but the clouds absorb it. The clouds are strong, but the wind disperses them. The wind is strong, but a wall withstands it. A Ezra Feldman Vagina is strong, but a man destroys it. A man is strong, but trouble unnerves him.

Trouble is Category milf, but wine removes it. Wine is strong, but sleep overcomes it. Sleep is strong, but Ezra Feldman Vagina dispels it. Illness is strong, but the Angel of Death conquers it. But a bad wife is worse than all these. Chiya had a shrew of a wife, but he treated her well, saying, " It is enough if our wives bring up our children Ezra Feldman Vagina save us from sin.

As an encouragement to the timid, the Midrash says: It is the few who Ezra Feldman Vagina and do not return. Thus, many take a wife, Ezra Feldman Vagina most of them prosper. It is only the few who stumble. Here cases of sterility it used to be the custom for the women to adopt other people's children, or orphans, or foundlings. Thus, Sarah, Rachel, and Leah, who had been childless, gave their maid-servants to their hus- bands, and adopted their children.

Pharaoh's daughter adopted Moses.

Open Sexxs Watch Video LesbianAnal Cumshot. This was reported to the Government as a case of Jewish rebellion, and the Emperor came and destroyed the city and massacred its inhabitants. The Domestic Life of Husband and Wife. The Duties of a Wife to her Husband. This action exposed her bare arms because women used to wear wide sleeves , which were so clear and beautiful that they made a strong impression, even on Rava himself. Rava's wife thereupon be- came so jealous that she expelled the plaintiff from the court-house. A wife must do light domestic work even if she brought with her a hundred servants, for idleness is the mother of all evil. He got very angry with her, and sarcastically told her next time to cook a bushel of lentils, which she did! He then told her to bring him two hvtzine which may mean either candles or carrots, but he wanted carrots , and she brought him two candles. He then lost his temper, and said, " Go and break these candles against haba " which means m Aramaic a door. But a learned man of the name of Baba ben Buta happened to sit at the door, so she broke the candles over his head. When Baba asked her why she did that, she replied: Ashi with this sum without a written, signed and witnessed I. Kethubotli vi. Metzia 59a. Chisda was once ornamenting herself in the presence of her daughter-in-law. Huna bar Chinena, who was present at the time, remarked that it only becomes a young woman to adorn herself, but not an old one. To this R. Chisda cynically rejoined: A woman of sixty is as enthusiastic over the music of a cymbal,, and of dancing, as a girl of six. The Talmud says that those who were afflicted with poverty or dyspepsia in their life, and received those sufierings with resignation, will enjoy immunity from punishment in the world to come. Some Eabbis added also " one who has a shrew of a wife "; for, said they, it cannot be argued that such a wife can easily be divorced and therefore ought not to be included, since in some instances there may be a heavy money settlement on her which the husband cannot afiord to give her, or he may not wish to divorce her on account of their children. In the Egyptian village of Sechanja a man wanted to obtain a divorce from his wife without paying her the marriage settlement. So he invited his friends to a feast, and made them as well as his wife drunk: Ensuite, s'etant procure des temoins, il vint plaider ie divorce pour cause d'adultere. Mais I'un des juges du nom de Baba ben Butha dit a ses coUegues, ' Je tiens de mon maitre Shammai I'Ancien que I'albumine se coagule simplement sous I'influence de la chaleur, tandis que le sperme traverse les tissus en les empes- sant. Tlie earth, is strong, but the rocks are stronger. The rock is strong, but iron breaks it. Iron is strong, but fire can melt it. Fire is strong, but water quenches it. Water is strong, but the clouds absorb it. The clouds are strong, but the wind disperses them. The wind is strong, but a wall withstands it. A wall is strong, but a man destroys it. A man is strong, but trouble unnerves him. Trouble is strong, but wine removes it. Wine is strong, but sleep overcomes it. Sleep is strong, but illness dispels it. Illness is strong, but the Angel of Death conquers it. But a bad wife is worse than all these. Chiya had a shrew of a wife, but he treated her well, saying, " It is enough if our wives bring up our children and save us from sin. As an encouragement to the timid, the Midrash says: It is the few who go and do not return. Thus, many take a wife, and most of them prosper. It is only the few who stumble. In cases of sterility it used to be the custom for the women to adopt other people's children, or orphans, or foundlings. Thus, Sarah, Rachel, and Leah, who had been childless, gave their maid-servants to their hus- bands, and adopted their children. Pharaoh's daughter adopted Moses. Joshua asked, " Why is it written 2 Sam. Was it not Merab who bore them? This is meant to teach that he who brings up an orphan in his house is as if he were his father. Chanina drew the same moral from the verse in Ruth iv. The Bible enumerates the following degrees of kinship which, a man must not marry: A mother, a stepmother, sister, half-sister legitimate or not , granddaughter, aunt on the paternal side , daughter-in-law, brother's wife except in cases of levirate marriage , stepdaughter, wife's mother, step-granddaughter, or wife's sister dur- ing the wife's life. Marriage between sister and brother was common amongst the Egyptians, who were a highly cultured race. From a purely biological aspect there can, of course, be no reason whatever for not marrying a deceased brother's wife, since there is no blood-relationship be- tween them. Indeed, from a purely biological stand- point there can be no reason for interdicting the marriage of the closest relatives. The Ptolemys habitually practised incest, having married their sisters and other close relatives without any visibly evil results. They were neither sterile nor short-lived, and were not par- ticularly subject to disease. Some of them, moreover, were singularly sharp-witted. The only apparent reasons against such marriages are — 1. The marked difierences in age between parents and children see p. The risk of brothers and sisters marrying each other while yet too young. Why, however, the Jewish law forbids marriage be- tween nephew and aunt, and not between uncle and niece, it is not easy to explain. By the following fallacious a fortiori reasoning R. Jose ben Thadai of Tiberias wanted to prove that it is not permissible to marry any girl except she be the daughter of a widow or divorcee. Chanina answered: Such was the importance attached to children that, if a man died without issue, his widow was given to his brother for a wife, in order that " the firstborn which she beareth shall succeed in the name of his brother which is dead, that his name be not put out of Israel. When he pleaded inability to support them all, the widows replied that they would each support the house- hold for one month in the year. After three years had passed, and the first leap year month arrived, Eabbi had to support, in addition to the husband with his twelve wives, also a crowd of thirty-six children! There are several cases in which levirate was not allowed, viz. If a man married his brother's daughter which is permissible according to Jewish law , and he died child- less, the widow, being the daughter of the surviving brother, cannot be given to him as wife. If a man had another wife in addition to his fraternal niece, the surviving brother, who is the father of the first wife, must not marry either of the widows. If a King dies without male issue, his brother is not to marry his widow according to levirate law, nor is a King to perform that duty in the case of his brother's widow. Further, if the widow is impotent or her dead husband suffered from impotence, levirate marriage is not allowed. Again, if the man is suffering from a contagious disease like leprosy, or has an occupation like tanning which might conceivably be objectionable to the widow, this marriage is not to take place. The ceremony of levirate has now been given up alto- gether in favour of Chalitzah. Smith, " Kinship," etc. Letourneau, " Evolution of Marriage," p. Stareke, "Primitive Family," pp. If levirate was impossible on account of unwillingness of the brother, " then shall his brother's wife come unto him in the presence of the elders, and loose his shoe from off his foot, and spit in front of him, and say. So shall it be done unto that man that will not build up his brother's house. The question of the intermarriage between Jews and Gentiles is one of considerable interest from the point of view of this book. If, for instance, we could show that the admission of non- Jewish blood by intermarriage from the earliest time to the present day is a negligible quantity, then we might be justified in believing that the biostatic and anthro- pological factors peculiar to the Jewish child are pure racial characters, possibly modified to some extent by influences of environment. If, however, the degree of prevalence of intermarriage has been of such an extent as to cause a considerable infusion of non-Jewish racial elements into Jewish veins, then we must conclude that any difierences that may exist between the char- acters of Jewish and non-Jewish children have very little to do with the question of race — are not, that is to say, due to anatomical or physiological peculiarities, but are rather in the main the result of social, religious, and political environment. Thus, to mention only a few, Hagar, a wife of Abraham, was an Egyptian, and Zipporah, the wife of Moses, was a Midianite. David was a descendant of Ruth, a Moabite woman, and his son Solomon " loved many strange women For they have taken of their daughters for themselves, and for their sons. Thus, Joseph Jacobs mentions that, of the doctors of the Mishna up to a. Meir, Schemjah, and Abtalion ; but he adds that, of the 1, doctors of the Gemara from a. Inst, Eeference to Baba Bathra a. During the Middle Ages, again, intermarriage between Jews and Gentiles was taking place, in spite of the feeling of hostility between Jews and Christians in those times, and notwithstanding the prohibition of such unions by both Synagogue and Church. The greatest number of those marriages took place in Southern Europe, especially Spain, Portugal, and Gaul. Indeed, the authorities who maintain that the Jews are not a pure race go to the length of saying that " the Jews in Southern Russia, Hungary, Roumania, and part of Poland, are mainly descendants of Chozars who intermarried with Jews. As regards mixed marriages in modern times, figures 1 See H. Graetz, " History of the Jews," vol. Fishberg, of. Thus, in Eastern Europe, where the Jews are both poor and very orthodox, mixed marriages are practically non-existent. On the other hand, in Western Europe and the United States, where the Jews and Gentries are in intimate social contact with the general popula- tion, such unions are very prevalent. In Berlia, for instance, in , 17 per cent, of all Jewesses and 27 per cent, of all Jews married Christians. In other words, every fourth Jew and every sixth Jewess married outside their faith. Euppin, " Die Juden der Gegenwart," pp. So much for facts. In order to analyze the influence that such intermarriages have had upon the racial purity of the Jewish child, we must pursue our inquiries in the following directions: In what respects did the Jewish racial characters differ from those of the peoples with whom they inter- married? To what extent did such mixed marriages take place? What is the fertility of mixed marriages? Is there such a thing as " prepotency " of the Jewish type — that is to say, does the Jewish blood possess, as it has been alleged to do, some mysterious power of transmitting the type uninterruptedly from generation to generation, in spite of admixture with other blood? Or, stated in Mendelian terminology, is the Jewish type a dominant or recessive feature? Lastly, how many of the offspring resulting from mixed unions remain within the Jewish fold? For it is obvious that, if the majority of such offspring leave the Jewish community, then the effect of these marriages upon the racial purity of the Jewish child cannot be very significant. I propose to discuss briefly each of the above questions. Racial Characters of the Jews and of the People with whom they intermarried. If it is between 79 and 81 it is called mesocephalic, and if over 81 the type of head is called br achy cephalic, or broad-headed. The prevaiUng type of complexion of modern Jews is dark, but there is a certain proportion 15 to 20 per cent. The striking resemblance between Jews and Armenians is strong evidence of their common ancestry from the Hittites. It is, however, not at all established that complexion is a racial trait. Ripley, " The Races of Europe," p. Sayce, op. Fishberg, however, who is a very energetic exponent of the theory of the racial impurity of Jews, points out that climate cannot be responsible for differentiation of pigmentation, since there are blonde Jews living in countries where the bulk of the population is brunette — e. Eipley, " The Races of Europe. The pre- vailing type among European Jews is meso- or sub- brachycephalic, with a cephalic index ranging between 80 and 83; but the Jews in the Caucasus are markedly brachycephalic with a cephalic index of , whilst those in Africa and Arabia are dolichocephalic C. If we accept it as a fact that head form is a purely racial character, then the great variety in the forms of Jewish heads obviously becomes a proof of their racial impurity. Some anthropologists, however, believe that the shape of the head is a character which is not deter- mined by heredity, but is subject to changes due to environment, such as intellectual activity and the pose of the body assumed in one's daily occupations, brachy- cephaly being assumed to be an accompaniment of great cerebral development. Indeed, Professor Boas measured the heads of 30, immigrants and their descendants in New York, and found that Eastern European Jews with brachycephalic heads become in the next generation dolichocephalic. Nathan xxv. Livi is quoted by Ripley as having shown that in Northern Italy the professional classes are longer-headed than the peasants, while in the south the opposite rule prevails. Ripley, " Tie Races of Europe," London, , p. Cherokee British Columbia Navajo According to Boas, the decrease with age is due to the growth of frontal sinuses and the occipital protuber- ance, especially in males. For similar reasons women are more brachycephalic than men. Extent to which Jews intermarried with Other Nations. Jacobs believes that the relative number of such mixed marriages was not great. I have already mentioned that, although no less than eight of the doctors of the Mishna up to A. Eliezer probably with the usual Talmudical exaggeration said that Ezra did not leave Babylon until he expurgated her from all racial impurity and made her as pure as fine flour. As regards the Chozars, it was pointed out by Jacobs that these proselytes formed the Karaite sect, which has remained altogether distinct from the rest of Euro- pean Jews. Indeed, all historical evidence seems to point to the fact that from the second to the nineteenth centuries there was very little intermixture between Jewish and Gentile bloods. Says Mr. Their blood has been untouched by conversion, even by intermarriage. Reinach, " the enormous growth of the Jewish nation in Egypt, Cyprus, and Cyrene, cannot be accounted for with- out supposing an abundant infusion of the Gentile blood. The fact that those statistics only apply to mar- riages contracted between two people whose creeds differ at the time of the marriage, but do not include unions between Jews and proselytes. In those countries where marriage between Jew and Christian is forbidden, many of the marriages in which one of the parties is styled as " free-thinker " are really mixed marriages. Hence mixed marriages probably occur to a considerably greater degree than is shown by statistics. Jacobs is, however, of opinion that probably not more than per cent, of all Jewish marriages throughout the world are mixed. The Fertility of Mixed Marriages. Superficially, statistics ' Quoted by James K. Hosmer in " The Jews," London, , p. Eeinacli, article " Judsei "in " Dictionnaire des An- tiquites," quoted by Fishberg, of. Pure Christian. Pure Jewish. This is a fallacious method, because the vast majority of births during any one year are due to marriages contracted in the previous twenty-five years, and, as the number of mixed marriages is continually increasing, it is obvious that the births of the year considered are reaUy due to a considerably smaller number of mixed marriages than are recorded for that year. Thus Fishberg quotes Ruppin to illustrate the fallacy of this method: In there were in Prussia only births to each mixed marriage contracted during that year, as against to each Jewish marriage. But, as the majority of these births are the results of marriages of about twenty-five years, we are led to investigate further. In there were only mixed marriages in Prussia, whilst in they reached Thon, quoted by Fisliberg. Another reason for their relative infecundity is the fact that the contracting parties of such marriages are relatively old. In other words, the Jewish race automatically rids itself of all foreign blood, and remains constantly pure in spite of intermarriage. Alleged Prepotency of Jewish Blood. But recent investigation has shown the opposite to be the case. Measurements taken of the second and third generations of American immigrant Jews show a natural elimination of the darker, shorter, and brachycephalic types, and a 1 " The Jews of To-Day," London, , p. Salaman is of opinion that this fact throws some light on the question of purity or otherwise of the Jews. The Jewish features are reces- sive to the Northern European including Teutonic , to the Italian, to the native Indian, to the Chinaman, and to the Negro. If, then, the Jew had freely inter- married with European races, it is obvious that the recessive Jewish facial characteristics would have been rapidly swamped, as has been the case, for instance, with the Falashas in Abyssinia, the Beni Israel in India, and with the Chinese Jews. But the very reverse is the case. The present Jewish features are the same as those depicted in Assyrian sculptures of B. There is one interesting fact which at first sight seems to militate against Salaman's conclusions regarding the racial purity of Jews. We should therefore expect that a 1 Fishberg, of. The great majority of the latter' s blue eyes are merely impure dominants. Evidence in favour of the purity of type is, according to Salaman, also available from Cohanim, who are the traditional descendants of the tribe of Aaron. All Jews of the name of Cohen, or some modification of it, are most probably such descendants. But people may be Cohanim without possessing the name of Cohen. No one, says Salaman very reasonably, who has no right to the title of Cohen by birth would assume the name, because it conveys no social distinction or advan- tage, but, on the contrary, is accompanied by consider- able disadvantages — e. Virchow, Arch. Schimmer, Mitt. Hence the conclusion is to be drawn that what- ever value may be ascribed to the purity of descent of Cohanim during the last 2, years must also be as- cribed to their brethren amongst whom they live. It is to be noted, however, that the purity of descent of the Cohanim is not only disputed by historians, but is greatly doubted even by orthodox casuists. As early as the fourteenth century Isaac ben Sheshet made a distinction between the real Cohanim whose descent could be traced from Aaron the High Priest, and others whose claim to the title could only be assumed. The same position was taken up in the sixteenth century by Samuel de Medina, and later by Solomon Loria, who says that during the long exile of the Jews it is almost certain that both Cohanim and Levites have failed to maintain the purity of their blood. The names of Jewish towns captured by the Egyptian King Shishak, recorded on the walls of the Temple of Karnak, are each surrounded with the head and shoulders of a prisoner, which Flinders Petrie has shown to be Amorite, and not Jewish, in type. This is evidence to the efEect that the Jewish type was so scantily represented as to be passed over by the Egyptian artist. The exact origin of the Amorites is a question of some interest. This Pan-Germanic school goes as far as to suggest that whatever good qualities the Jews possess they owe to the admixture in them of German blood through the fair-haired Amorites. Salaman's interesting observations, however, seem to prove definitely that if, as is more than probable, the fair features found amongst Jews are derived originally from Amorites, then the Amorites were not Germanic. For, whereas the German or Teutonic type is a dominant Mendelian character, Salaman, from an examination of the offspring of marriages between such non- Jewish- looking Jews and Jews who have a definitely pro- nounced cast of features, ascertained that this non-Jewish type found among them is recessive to the typically Jewish since all the children were typically Jewish. Hence, whatever the origin of this non-Jewish type may be, whether it is Amoritic or not, " it is at least quite certain that it cannot be Teutonic in origin. Salaman found that in marriages between typical Sephardic and Ashkenazic Jews, the physiognomy of the former is dominant, showing that not only is their claim of greater purity unjustified, but that on the contrary during the last years " the Ashkenazim can show a far cleaner bUl than the Sephardim, who are known to have absorbed in no small quantity both Moorish and Iberian blood. Thus, only about 10 per cent, remain definitely Jews and marry in the Jewish community. According to Euppin, the number of legitimate and illegitimate hybrid children born yearly into Jewish families in Prussia is about per cent, of the pure Jewish births, a proportion which, as he remarks, " must in the course of time considerably modify the race character of the Jews. Arguments Against. Arguments in Favour. Intermarriage in Biblical 1. These marriages were small and Talmudical times. Wholesale conversion to Ju- 2. These converts became daism in the Middle Ages — e. Marked differences in type 3. These differences are not — e. The following additional arguments seem to determine the balance in favour of the view that the Jewish race has remained practically pure: The Jewish face, being, as alleged, a recessive Mendelian character, would have been entirely swamped if intermarriage had taken place to any considerable extent. Cohanim, who are not allowed to marry proselytes, possess the same type of face as the rest of the Jews. We know, however, that in the time of Ezra even the priests intermarried see p. Mixed marriages are comparatively infertile, and the bulk of such ofispring leave the Jewish community. The sum total of the arguments is that, whilst there seelns to be very little doubt that the Jews are not a pure Semitic race, their ancient ancestors having freely intermarried with non-Semitic Amorites, Hittites, etc. If the smoke will go through her body and reach her nostrils, the fault of her sterility does not lie with her " Hippocrates, De nat. Physiology of Pregnancy. The Talmud and Midrash refer to the wonders of pregnancy in the following words: Sotah iv. Indeed, Avicenna taught that there was a direct venous communication between the uterus and the breasts, and on this theory some primitive nations forbid intercourse during lactation, lest the child swallow semen together with the milk. Thus, it was believed that there was a possibility of conception occurring in a bath in quo spermatizaverat homof' and Ben Sira was said to have been the son of a daughter of Jeremiah who became enceinte from her father in that way. Zera and R. Poppa were also said to have been conceived in such a manner. Benzew, in his Introduction to Ben Sira, disproves these allegations, but those who believe in such a possibility may explain the immaculate conception of Mary in a similar way. Indeed, the Rabbi who expressed himself as a believer in such an occurrence was Simon ben Zoma, a sage of the second century A. Preuss, op. The question that was asked of him, probably sarcastically, was whether the High Priest, who may only marry a virgin, was allowed to marry a pregnant virgin. Ben Zoma answered the question in the affirmative, because, said he, conception was possible in a bath in which a man had just before washed himself. Averroes, an Arabian physician who died in , records that an acquaintance of his, whose hona fides was beyond dispute, stated on her oath that " impregnata fuerat subito in balneo lavelli aquse calidse, in quo spermatizaverunt mali homines cum essent balnea ti in illo balneo. Even as late as the beginning of the eighteenth century this belief prevailed, and R. According to R. Eliezer, no woman becomes preg- nant as the result of a first intercourse. Gesclileclitslebeii in d. Tiirkei," Berlin, , ii. Medizin," pp. Period of Most Favourable Impregnation. In cases of single coitus it has been found that the duration of pregnancy was days from that date, but it is also known that the duration of pregnancy is days as counted from the end of the last menstrual period, and therefore the fruitful coitus probably takes place about six days from the end of menstruation. Prevention of conception was not allowed except in the three following cases: Galabin and G. Blacker, " The Practice of Midwifery," London, , p. The first symptom is Amenorrhoea. Child marriages were, how- ever, discouraged; at any rate, pregnancy was in those cases 'prevented. But the guests ridiculed the festivities, and said: He invited the chiefs of the land with their wives and babies, and Sarah gave all the infants to suck. The 1 Nidah 9a. Eden mentions a case in a woman fifty-nine years old, who had her menopause nine years previously. Ghisda's statement on p. Longings were another sign of pregnancy. These were believed to originate from the foetus in other words, it was considered a toxaemia of pregnancy , and hence, if they were for something which was ritually forbidden, they were taken as a bad sign for the future career of the child. Eden, " A Manual of Midwifery," 3rd edit. Chagiga ii. He advised that somebody should whisper into the woman's ear that it was the Day of Atonement. This was done, and the longing disappeared. She then gave birth to a son, who afterwards became the great Rabbi R. Hence, says the Talmud, the say- ing in Jeremiah i. Among the other signs of pregnancy were Foetal Movements. Schapiro quickening first occurs, in the case of a boy, at three months, and in the case of a girl at four months. Luke i. Sctapiro, " Obstetrique des Anciens Hebreux," Paris, , p. It is also said that God made the matriarchs sterile in order that they might preserve their beautiful figures and retain their husbands' afiection. That pregnancy increases the weight of a woman was well known. According to CHOP, some women are at greater risk for postpartum hemorrhaging than others. Conditions that may increase the risk include:. Postpartum hemorrhage usually occurs within one day of childbirth. But it can happen up to 12 weeks following birth, according to March of Dimes. Treatment for postpartum hemorrhage will vary depending upon the situation and severity. According to CHOP, treatment for postpartum hemorrhage can include:. When doctors, nurses, midwives and other medical providers fail to timely recognize and properly treat postpartum hemorrhage, women can suffer devastating harm. Injuries caused by untreated postpartum hemorrhaging include:. The lawsuits filed on behalf of postpartum hemorrhage victims and families seek damages for medical bills, loss of earning potential, pain and suffering, and loss of the pleasures of life. Our website, like many others, uses small files called cookies to help us customize your experience. To learn more about the cookies our website is using or to switch them off, go to the cookies settings page. To review our privacy policy click here. This website uses cookies so that we can provide you with the best user experience possible. To find out more about the cookies we use, see our Privacy Policy. A single cookie will be used in your browser to remember your preference not to be tracked. Strictly Necessary Cookie should be enabled at all times so that we can save your preferences for cookie settings. If you disable this cookie, we will not be able to save your preferences. This means that every time you visit this website you will need to enable or disable cookies again. Latest stream of conscience. Never is that more apparent this week than in Conor, who shockingly gets the most nuanced and thoughtful storyline of the week. Ray takes Conor on a road trip down town to teach him a lesson about being a tough man, but not before Conor gets in his own shots. Texans love hats! For the second time in two weeks, Daryl is forced to undertake a dangerous, thankless task to hold things together. This time, his job is to take Joxy Maguire sp? At least, I can only hope so. Ray Donovan is so staunchly episodic that any loose threads left hanging in the previous episode just… disappear by the time the next episode rolls around. At the beginning of the episode this week, both Cochran and The Texan are being treated for their gunshot wounds and are subject to absolutely zero police questioning? Lets move on! Our B-story this time around is a rather delightful Mickey road trip 2. Which is actually okay. I just felt uncomfortable with it. The reaction to my article highlighted a few things; There is a massive challenge in being openly Jewish but commenting on various socio-political events that have no Jewish or Israel reference. No matter the subject, the fact that I wear a kippah defines how I am perceived and what I am expected to say. But more concerning is the anger of South Africans. Black Monday was a clear indication that South Africans of all races and of all religions have had enough of being let down by a corrupt government that was elected to serve them. The country is a powder keg. Howard Feldman. South Africa's flag photo credit:.

Joshua asked, " Why is it written 2 Sam. Was it not Merab who bore them? This is meant to teach that Ezra Feldman Vagina who brings up an orphan in his house is as if he were his father.

Chanina drew the same Ezra Feldman Vagina from the verse in Ruth iv.

Interacial porntube Watch Video Tryporn Com. According to USA Today, California is the only state to buck the alarming statistics, with its maternal death rate falling by half while maternal deaths continue to rise across the nation. Below are answers to the eight most common questions asked by new and expectant moms about postpartum hemorrhage. For cesarean births, the average is about milliliters or one quart. An estimated 2. Postpartum hemorrhage affects , new moms per year. The most common cause of postpartum hemorrhage is failure of the uterus to adequately contract after a mother gives birth. This condition is called uterine atony. Those contractions help compress the blood vessels that attached the placenta to the uterus. If the contractions are not strong enough, the blood vessels will bleed freely, causing postpartum hemorrhage. Postpartum hemorrhage also occurs when small pieces of the placenta remain attached to the uterine wall after the placenta is expelled. According to CHOP, some women are at greater risk for postpartum hemorrhaging than others. Conditions that may increase the risk include:. Postpartum hemorrhage usually occurs within one day of childbirth. But it can happen up to 12 weeks following birth, according to March of Dimes. Treatment for postpartum hemorrhage will vary depending upon the situation and severity. According to CHOP, treatment for postpartum hemorrhage can include:. When doctors, nurses, midwives and other medical providers fail to timely recognize and properly treat postpartum hemorrhage, women can suffer devastating harm. Injuries caused by untreated postpartum hemorrhaging include:. The lawsuits filed on behalf of postpartum hemorrhage victims and families seek damages for medical bills, loss of earning potential, pain and suffering, and loss of the pleasures of life. Never is that more apparent this week than in Conor, who shockingly gets the most nuanced and thoughtful storyline of the week. Ray takes Conor on a road trip down town to teach him a lesson about being a tough man, but not before Conor gets in his own shots. Texans love hats! For the second time in two weeks, Daryl is forced to undertake a dangerous, thankless task to hold things together. This time, his job is to take Joxy Maguire sp? At least, I can only hope so. Ray Donovan is so staunchly episodic that any loose threads left hanging in the previous episode just… disappear by the time the next episode rolls around. At the beginning of the episode this week, both Cochran and The Texan are being treated for their gunshot wounds and are subject to absolutely zero police questioning? Lets move on! Our B-story this time around is a rather delightful Mickey road trip 2. Zarali Abrahamg, op. One day some Roman soldiers seized the fowls, and were maltreated by the Jews in consequence. This was reported to the Government as a case of Jewish rebellion, and the Emperor came and destroyed the city and massacred its inhabitants. The Domestic Life of Husband and Wife. The Duties of a Wife to her Husband. This action exposed her bare arms because women used to wear wide sleeves , which were so clear and beautiful that they made a strong impression, even on Rava himself. Rava's wife thereupon be- came so jealous that she expelled the plaintiff from the court-house. A wife must do light domestic work even if she brought with her a hundred servants, for idleness is the mother of all evil. He got very angry with her, and sarcastically told her next time to cook a bushel of lentils, which she did! He then told her to bring him two hvtzine which may mean either candles or carrots, but he wanted carrots , and she brought him two candles. He then lost his temper, and said, " Go and break these candles against haba " which means m Aramaic a door. But a learned man of the name of Baba ben Buta happened to sit at the door, so she broke the candles over his head. When Baba asked her why she did that, she replied: Ashi with this sum without a written, signed and witnessed I. Kethubotli vi. Metzia 59a. Chisda was once ornamenting herself in the presence of her daughter-in-law. Huna bar Chinena, who was present at the time, remarked that it only becomes a young woman to adorn herself, but not an old one. To this R. Chisda cynically rejoined: A woman of sixty is as enthusiastic over the music of a cymbal,, and of dancing, as a girl of six. The Talmud says that those who were afflicted with poverty or dyspepsia in their life, and received those sufierings with resignation, will enjoy immunity from punishment in the world to come. Some Eabbis added also " one who has a shrew of a wife "; for, said they, it cannot be argued that such a wife can easily be divorced and therefore ought not to be included, since in some instances there may be a heavy money settlement on her which the husband cannot afiord to give her, or he may not wish to divorce her on account of their children. In the Egyptian village of Sechanja a man wanted to obtain a divorce from his wife without paying her the marriage settlement. So he invited his friends to a feast, and made them as well as his wife drunk: Ensuite, s'etant procure des temoins, il vint plaider ie divorce pour cause d'adultere. Mais I'un des juges du nom de Baba ben Butha dit a ses coUegues, ' Je tiens de mon maitre Shammai I'Ancien que I'albumine se coagule simplement sous I'influence de la chaleur, tandis que le sperme traverse les tissus en les empes- sant. Tlie earth, is strong, but the rocks are stronger. The rock is strong, but iron breaks it. Iron is strong, but fire can melt it. Fire is strong, but water quenches it. Water is strong, but the clouds absorb it. The clouds are strong, but the wind disperses them. The wind is strong, but a wall withstands it. A wall is strong, but a man destroys it. A man is strong, but trouble unnerves him. Trouble is strong, but wine removes it. Wine is strong, but sleep overcomes it. Sleep is strong, but illness dispels it. Illness is strong, but the Angel of Death conquers it. But a bad wife is worse than all these. Chiya had a shrew of a wife, but he treated her well, saying, " It is enough if our wives bring up our children and save us from sin. As an encouragement to the timid, the Midrash says: It is the few who go and do not return. Thus, many take a wife, and most of them prosper. It is only the few who stumble. In cases of sterility it used to be the custom for the women to adopt other people's children, or orphans, or foundlings. Thus, Sarah, Rachel, and Leah, who had been childless, gave their maid-servants to their hus- bands, and adopted their children. Pharaoh's daughter adopted Moses. Joshua asked, " Why is it written 2 Sam. Was it not Merab who bore them? This is meant to teach that he who brings up an orphan in his house is as if he were his father. Chanina drew the same moral from the verse in Ruth iv. The Bible enumerates the following degrees of kinship which, a man must not marry: A mother, a stepmother, sister, half-sister legitimate or not , granddaughter, aunt on the paternal side , daughter-in-law, brother's wife except in cases of levirate marriage , stepdaughter, wife's mother, step-granddaughter, or wife's sister dur- ing the wife's life. Marriage between sister and brother was common amongst the Egyptians, who were a highly cultured race. From a purely biological aspect there can, of course, be no reason whatever for not marrying a deceased brother's wife, since there is no blood-relationship be- tween them. Indeed, from a purely biological stand- point there can be no reason for interdicting the marriage of the closest relatives. The Ptolemys habitually practised incest, having married their sisters and other close relatives without any visibly evil results. They were neither sterile nor short-lived, and were not par- ticularly subject to disease. Some of them, moreover, were singularly sharp-witted. The only apparent reasons against such marriages are — 1. The marked difierences in age between parents and children see p. The risk of brothers and sisters marrying each other while yet too young. Why, however, the Jewish law forbids marriage be- tween nephew and aunt, and not between uncle and niece, it is not easy to explain. By the following fallacious a fortiori reasoning R. Jose ben Thadai of Tiberias wanted to prove that it is not permissible to marry any girl except she be the daughter of a widow or divorcee. Chanina answered: Such was the importance attached to children that, if a man died without issue, his widow was given to his brother for a wife, in order that " the firstborn which she beareth shall succeed in the name of his brother which is dead, that his name be not put out of Israel. When he pleaded inability to support them all, the widows replied that they would each support the house- hold for one month in the year. After three years had passed, and the first leap year month arrived, Eabbi had to support, in addition to the husband with his twelve wives, also a crowd of thirty-six children! There are several cases in which levirate was not allowed, viz. If a man married his brother's daughter which is permissible according to Jewish law , and he died child- less, the widow, being the daughter of the surviving brother, cannot be given to him as wife. If a man had another wife in addition to his fraternal niece, the surviving brother, who is the father of the first wife, must not marry either of the widows. If a King dies without male issue, his brother is not to marry his widow according to levirate law, nor is a King to perform that duty in the case of his brother's widow. Further, if the widow is impotent or her dead husband suffered from impotence, levirate marriage is not allowed. Again, if the man is suffering from a contagious disease like leprosy, or has an occupation like tanning which might conceivably be objectionable to the widow, this marriage is not to take place. The ceremony of levirate has now been given up alto- gether in favour of Chalitzah. Smith, " Kinship," etc. Letourneau, " Evolution of Marriage," p. Stareke, "Primitive Family," pp. If levirate was impossible on account of unwillingness of the brother, " then shall his brother's wife come unto him in the presence of the elders, and loose his shoe from off his foot, and spit in front of him, and say. So shall it be done unto that man that will not build up his brother's house. The question of the intermarriage between Jews and Gentiles is one of considerable interest from the point of view of this book. If, for instance, we could show that the admission of non- Jewish blood by intermarriage from the earliest time to the present day is a negligible quantity, then we might be justified in believing that the biostatic and anthro- pological factors peculiar to the Jewish child are pure racial characters, possibly modified to some extent by influences of environment. If, however, the degree of prevalence of intermarriage has been of such an extent as to cause a considerable infusion of non-Jewish racial elements into Jewish veins, then we must conclude that any difierences that may exist between the char- acters of Jewish and non-Jewish children have very little to do with the question of race — are not, that is to say, due to anatomical or physiological peculiarities, but are rather in the main the result of social, religious, and political environment. Thus, to mention only a few, Hagar, a wife of Abraham, was an Egyptian, and Zipporah, the wife of Moses, was a Midianite. David was a descendant of Ruth, a Moabite woman, and his son Solomon " loved many strange women For they have taken of their daughters for themselves, and for their sons. Thus, Joseph Jacobs mentions that, of the doctors of the Mishna up to a. Meir, Schemjah, and Abtalion ; but he adds that, of the 1, doctors of the Gemara from a. Inst, Eeference to Baba Bathra a. During the Middle Ages, again, intermarriage between Jews and Gentiles was taking place, in spite of the feeling of hostility between Jews and Christians in those times, and notwithstanding the prohibition of such unions by both Synagogue and Church. The greatest number of those marriages took place in Southern Europe, especially Spain, Portugal, and Gaul. Indeed, the authorities who maintain that the Jews are not a pure race go to the length of saying that " the Jews in Southern Russia, Hungary, Roumania, and part of Poland, are mainly descendants of Chozars who intermarried with Jews. As regards mixed marriages in modern times, figures 1 See H. Graetz, " History of the Jews," vol. Fishberg, of. Thus, in Eastern Europe, where the Jews are both poor and very orthodox, mixed marriages are practically non-existent. On the other hand, in Western Europe and the United States, where the Jews and Gentries are in intimate social contact with the general popula- tion, such unions are very prevalent. In Berlia, for instance, in , 17 per cent, of all Jewesses and 27 per cent, of all Jews married Christians. In other words, every fourth Jew and every sixth Jewess married outside their faith. Euppin, " Die Juden der Gegenwart," pp. So much for facts. In order to analyze the influence that such intermarriages have had upon the racial purity of the Jewish child, we must pursue our inquiries in the following directions: In what respects did the Jewish racial characters differ from those of the peoples with whom they inter- married? To what extent did such mixed marriages take place? What is the fertility of mixed marriages? Is there such a thing as " prepotency " of the Jewish type — that is to say, does the Jewish blood possess, as it has been alleged to do, some mysterious power of transmitting the type uninterruptedly from generation to generation, in spite of admixture with other blood? Or, stated in Mendelian terminology, is the Jewish type a dominant or recessive feature? Lastly, how many of the offspring resulting from mixed unions remain within the Jewish fold? For it is obvious that, if the majority of such offspring leave the Jewish community, then the effect of these marriages upon the racial purity of the Jewish child cannot be very significant. I propose to discuss briefly each of the above questions. Racial Characters of the Jews and of the People with whom they intermarried. If it is between 79 and 81 it is called mesocephalic, and if over 81 the type of head is called br achy cephalic, or broad-headed. The prevaiUng type of complexion of modern Jews is dark, but there is a certain proportion 15 to 20 per cent. The striking resemblance between Jews and Armenians is strong evidence of their common ancestry from the Hittites. It is, however, not at all established that complexion is a racial trait. Ripley, " The Races of Europe," p. Sayce, op. Fishberg, however, who is a very energetic exponent of the theory of the racial impurity of Jews, points out that climate cannot be responsible for differentiation of pigmentation, since there are blonde Jews living in countries where the bulk of the population is brunette — e. Eipley, " The Races of Europe. The pre- vailing type among European Jews is meso- or sub- brachycephalic, with a cephalic index ranging between 80 and 83; but the Jews in the Caucasus are markedly brachycephalic with a cephalic index of , whilst those in Africa and Arabia are dolichocephalic C. If we accept it as a fact that head form is a purely racial character, then the great variety in the forms of Jewish heads obviously becomes a proof of their racial impurity. Some anthropologists, however, believe that the shape of the head is a character which is not deter- mined by heredity, but is subject to changes due to environment, such as intellectual activity and the pose of the body assumed in one's daily occupations, brachy- cephaly being assumed to be an accompaniment of great cerebral development. Indeed, Professor Boas measured the heads of 30, immigrants and their descendants in New York, and found that Eastern European Jews with brachycephalic heads become in the next generation dolichocephalic. Nathan xxv. Livi is quoted by Ripley as having shown that in Northern Italy the professional classes are longer-headed than the peasants, while in the south the opposite rule prevails. Ripley, " Tie Races of Europe," London, , p. Cherokee British Columbia Navajo According to Boas, the decrease with age is due to the growth of frontal sinuses and the occipital protuber- ance, especially in males. For similar reasons women are more brachycephalic than men. Extent to which Jews intermarried with Other Nations. Jacobs believes that the relative number of such mixed marriages was not great. I have already mentioned that, although no less than eight of the doctors of the Mishna up to A. Eliezer probably with the usual Talmudical exaggeration said that Ezra did not leave Babylon until he expurgated her from all racial impurity and made her as pure as fine flour. As regards the Chozars, it was pointed out by Jacobs that these proselytes formed the Karaite sect, which has remained altogether distinct from the rest of Euro- pean Jews. Indeed, all historical evidence seems to point to the fact that from the second to the nineteenth centuries there was very little intermixture between Jewish and Gentile bloods. Says Mr. Their blood has been untouched by conversion, even by intermarriage. Reinach, " the enormous growth of the Jewish nation in Egypt, Cyprus, and Cyrene, cannot be accounted for with- out supposing an abundant infusion of the Gentile blood. The fact that those statistics only apply to mar- riages contracted between two people whose creeds differ at the time of the marriage, but do not include unions between Jews and proselytes. In those countries where marriage between Jew and Christian is forbidden, many of the marriages in which one of the parties is styled as " free-thinker " are really mixed marriages. Hence mixed marriages probably occur to a considerably greater degree than is shown by statistics. Jacobs is, however, of opinion that probably not more than per cent, of all Jewish marriages throughout the world are mixed. The Fertility of Mixed Marriages. Superficially, statistics ' Quoted by James K. Hosmer in " The Jews," London, , p. Eeinacli, article " Judsei "in " Dictionnaire des An- tiquites," quoted by Fishberg, of. Pure Christian. Pure Jewish. This is a fallacious method, because the vast majority of births during any one year are due to marriages contracted in the previous twenty-five years, and, as the number of mixed marriages is continually increasing, it is obvious that the births of the year considered are reaUy due to a considerably smaller number of mixed marriages than are recorded for that year. Thus Fishberg quotes Ruppin to illustrate the fallacy of this method: In there were in Prussia only births to each mixed marriage contracted during that year, as against to each Jewish marriage. But, as the majority of these births are the results of marriages of about twenty-five years, we are led to investigate further. In there were only mixed marriages in Prussia, whilst in they reached Thon, quoted by Fisliberg. Another reason for their relative infecundity is the fact that the contracting parties of such marriages are relatively old. In other words, the Jewish race automatically rids itself of all foreign blood, and remains constantly pure in spite of intermarriage. Alleged Prepotency of Jewish Blood. But recent investigation has shown the opposite to be the case. Measurements taken of the second and third generations of American immigrant Jews show a natural elimination of the darker, shorter, and brachycephalic types, and a 1 " The Jews of To-Day," London, , p. Salaman is of opinion that this fact throws some light on the question of purity or otherwise of the Jews. The Jewish features are reces- sive to the Northern European including Teutonic , to the Italian, to the native Indian, to the Chinaman, and to the Negro. If, then, the Jew had freely inter- married with European races, it is obvious that the recessive Jewish facial characteristics would have been rapidly swamped, as has been the case, for instance, with the Falashas in Abyssinia, the Beni Israel in India, and with the Chinese Jews. But the very reverse is the case. The present Jewish features are the same as those depicted in Assyrian sculptures of B. There is one interesting fact which at first sight seems to militate against Salaman's conclusions regarding the racial purity of Jews. We should therefore expect that a 1 Fishberg, of. The great majority of the latter' s blue eyes are merely impure dominants. Evidence in favour of the purity of type is, according to Salaman, also available from Cohanim, who are the traditional descendants of the tribe of Aaron. All Jews of the name of Cohen, or some modification of it, are most probably such descendants. But people may be Cohanim without possessing the name of Cohen. No one, says Salaman very reasonably, who has no right to the title of Cohen by birth would assume the name, because it conveys no social distinction or advan- tage, but, on the contrary, is accompanied by consider- able disadvantages — e. Virchow, Arch. Schimmer, Mitt. Hence the conclusion is to be drawn that what- ever value may be ascribed to the purity of descent of Cohanim during the last 2, years must also be as- cribed to their brethren amongst whom they live. It is to be noted, however, that the purity of descent of the Cohanim is not only disputed by historians, but is greatly doubted even by orthodox casuists. As early as the fourteenth century Isaac ben Sheshet made a distinction between the real Cohanim whose descent could be traced from Aaron the High Priest, and others whose claim to the title could only be assumed. The same position was taken up in the sixteenth century by Samuel de Medina, and later by Solomon Loria, who says that during the long exile of the Jews it is almost certain that both Cohanim and Levites have failed to maintain the purity of their blood. The names of Jewish towns captured by the Egyptian King Shishak, recorded on the walls of the Temple of Karnak, are each surrounded with the head and shoulders of a prisoner, which Flinders Petrie has shown to be Amorite, and not Jewish, in type. This is evidence to the efEect that the Jewish type was so scantily represented as to be passed over by the Egyptian artist. The exact origin of the Amorites is a question of some interest. This Pan-Germanic school goes as far as to suggest that whatever good qualities the Jews possess they owe to the admixture in them of German blood through the fair-haired Amorites. Salaman's interesting observations, however, seem to prove definitely that if, as is more than probable, the fair features found amongst Jews are derived originally from Amorites, then the Amorites were not Germanic. For, whereas the German or Teutonic type is a dominant Mendelian character, Salaman, from an examination of the offspring of marriages between such non- Jewish- looking Jews and Jews who have a definitely pro- nounced cast of features, ascertained that this non-Jewish type found among them is recessive to the typically Jewish since all the children were typically Jewish. Hence, whatever the origin of this non-Jewish type may be, whether it is Amoritic or not, " it is at least quite certain that it cannot be Teutonic in origin. Salaman found that in marriages between typical Sephardic and Ashkenazic Jews, the physiognomy of the former is dominant, showing that not only is their claim of greater purity unjustified, but that on the contrary during the last years " the Ashkenazim can show a far cleaner bUl than the Sephardim, who are known to have absorbed in no small quantity both Moorish and Iberian blood. Thus, only about 10 per cent, remain definitely Jews and marry in the Jewish community. According to Euppin, the number of legitimate and illegitimate hybrid children born yearly into Jewish families in Prussia is about per cent, of the pure Jewish births, a proportion which, as he remarks, " must in the course of time considerably modify the race character of the Jews. Arguments Against. Arguments in Favour. Intermarriage in Biblical 1. These marriages were small and Talmudical times. Wholesale conversion to Ju- 2. These converts became daism in the Middle Ages — e. Marked differences in type 3. These differences are not — e. The following additional arguments seem to determine the balance in favour of the view that the Jewish race has remained practically pure: The Jewish face, being, as alleged, a recessive Mendelian character, would have been entirely swamped if intermarriage had taken place to any considerable extent. Cohanim, who are not allowed to marry proselytes, possess the same type of face as the rest of the Jews. We know, however, that in the time of Ezra even the priests intermarried see p. Mixed marriages are comparatively infertile, and the bulk of such ofispring leave the Jewish community. The sum total of the arguments is that, whilst there seelns to be very little doubt that the Jews are not a pure Semitic race, their ancient ancestors having freely intermarried with non-Semitic Amorites, Hittites, etc. If the smoke will go through her body and reach her nostrils, the fault of her sterility does not lie with her " Hippocrates, De nat. Physiology of Pregnancy. The Talmud and Midrash refer to the wonders of pregnancy in the following words: Sotah iv. Indeed, Avicenna taught that there was a direct venous communication between the uterus and the breasts, and on this theory some primitive nations forbid intercourse during lactation, lest the child swallow semen together with the milk. Thus, it was believed that there was a possibility of conception occurring in a bath in quo spermatizaverat homof' and Ben Sira was said to have been the son of a daughter of Jeremiah who became enceinte from her father in that way. Zera and R. Poppa were also said to have been conceived in such a manner. Benzew, in his Introduction to Ben Sira, disproves these allegations, but those who believe in such a possibility may explain the immaculate conception of Mary in a similar way. Indeed, the Rabbi who expressed himself as a believer in such an occurrence was Simon ben Zoma, a sage of the second century A. Preuss, op. The question that was asked of him, probably sarcastically, was whether the High Priest, who may only marry a virgin, was allowed to marry a pregnant virgin. Ben Zoma answered the question in the affirmative, because, said he, conception was possible in a bath in which a man had just before washed himself. Averroes, an Arabian physician who died in , records that an acquaintance of his, whose hona fides was beyond dispute, stated on her oath that " impregnata fuerat subito in balneo lavelli aquse calidse, in quo spermatizaverunt mali homines cum essent balnea ti in illo balneo. Even as late as the beginning of the eighteenth century this belief prevailed, and R. According to R. Eliezer, no woman becomes preg- nant as the result of a first intercourse. Gesclileclitslebeii in d. Tiirkei," Berlin, , ii. Medizin," pp. Period of Most Favourable Impregnation. In cases of single coitus it has been found that the duration of pregnancy was days from that date, but it is also known that the duration of pregnancy is days as counted from the end of the last menstrual period, and therefore the fruitful coitus probably takes place about six days from the end of menstruation. Prevention of conception was not allowed except in the three following cases: Galabin and G. Blacker, " The Practice of Midwifery," London, , p. The first symptom is Amenorrhoea. Child marriages were, how- ever, discouraged; at any rate, pregnancy was in those cases 'prevented. But the guests ridiculed the festivities, and said: He invited the chiefs of the land with their wives and babies, and Sarah gave all the infants to suck. The 1 Nidah 9a. Eden mentions a case in a woman fifty-nine years old, who had her menopause nine years previously. Ghisda's statement on p. Longings were another sign of pregnancy. These were believed to originate from the foetus in other words, it was considered a toxaemia of pregnancy , and hence, if they were for something which was ritually forbidden, they were taken as a bad sign for the future career of the child. Eden, " A Manual of Midwifery," 3rd edit. Chagiga ii. He advised that somebody should whisper into the woman's ear that it was the Day of Atonement. This was done, and the longing disappeared. She then gave birth to a son, who afterwards became the great Rabbi R. Hence, says the Talmud, the say- ing in Jeremiah i. Among the other signs of pregnancy were Foetal Movements. Schapiro quickening first occurs, in the case of a boy, at three months, and in the case of a girl at four months. Luke i. I just felt uncomfortable with it. The reaction to my article highlighted a few things; There is a massive challenge in being openly Jewish but commenting on various socio-political events that have no Jewish or Israel reference. No matter the subject, the fact that I wear a kippah defines how I am perceived and what I am expected to say. But more concerning is the anger of South Africans. Black Monday was a clear indication that South Africans of all races and of all religions have had enough of being let down by a corrupt government that was elected to serve them. The country is a powder keg. Howard Feldman. South Africa's flag photo credit: And I look thinner in black..

The Bible enumerates the following degrees of kinship which, a man must not marry: Ezra Feldman Vagina mother, a stepmother, read article, half-sister legitimate or notEzra Feldman Vagina, aunt on the paternal sideEzra Feldman Vagina, brother's wife except in cases of levirate marriagestepdaughter, wife's mother, step-granddaughter, or wife's sister dur- ing the wife's life.

Marriage between sister and brother was common amongst Ezra Feldman Vagina Egyptians, who were a highly cultured race. From a purely biological aspect there can, of course, be no reason whatever for not marrying a deceased brother's wife, since there is no blood-relationship be- tween them.

Indeed, from a purely biological stand- point there can be no reason for interdicting the marriage of the closest relatives. The Ptolemys habitually practised incest, having married their sisters and other close relatives without any visibly evil results. They were neither sterile nor short-lived, and were not par- ticularly subject to disease. Some of them, moreover, were singularly sharp-witted. The only apparent reasons against such marriages are — 1.

The marked difierences Ezra Feldman Vagina age between parents and children see p.

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The risk of Ezra Feldman Vagina and Ezra Feldman Vagina marrying each other while yet too young. Ezra Feldman Vagina, however, the Jewish law forbids marriage be- tween nephew and aunt, and not between uncle more info niece, it is Ezra Feldman Vagina easy sluts stocking Sexy mature explain.

By the following fallacious a fortiori reasoning R. Jose ben Thadai of Tiberias wanted to prove that it is not permissible to marry any girl except she be the daughter of a widow or divorcee. Chanina answered: Such was the importance attached to children that, if a man died without issue, his widow was given to his brother for a wife, in order that " the firstborn which she beareth shall succeed in the name of his brother which is dead, that his name be Ezra Feldman Vagina put out of Israel.

When he pleaded inability to support them all, the widows replied that they would each support the house- hold for one month in the year. After three years had passed, and the first leap year month arrived, Eabbi had to support, in addition to the husband with his twelve click, also a crowd of thirty-six children! There are several cases in which levirate was not allowed, viz. Click to see more a man married his brother's daughter which is permissible according to Jewish lawand he Ezra Feldman Vagina child- less, the widow, being the daughter of the surviving brother, cannot be given to him as wife.

If a man had another wife in addition to his fraternal niece, the surviving brother, who Ezra Feldman Vagina the father of the first wife, must not marry either of the widows. If a King dies without male issue, his brother is not to marry his widow according to levirate law, nor is a King to perform that duty in the case of his brother's widow. Further, if the widow is impotent or her dead husband suffered from impotence, levirate marriage Ezra Feldman Vagina not allowed.

Again, if the man is suffering from a contagious disease like leprosy, or has an occupation like tanning which might conceivably be objectionable to the Ezra Feldman Vagina, this marriage is not to take place. The ceremony of levirate has now been given up alto- gether in favour of Chalitzah. Smith, " Kinship," etc. Letourneau, " Evolution of Marriage," p. Stareke, "Primitive Family," pp. If levirate was impossible on account of unwillingness of the brother, " then shall his brother's wife come unto him in the presence of the elders, and loose his shoe from off his foot, and spit in front of him, and say.

So shall it be done unto that man Ezra Feldman Vagina will not build Ezra Feldman Vagina his brother's house. The question of the intermarriage between Jews and Gentiles is one of considerable interest from the point of view of this book. If, for instance, we could show that the admission of non- Jewish blood by intermarriage from the earliest time to the present day is a negligible quantity, then we might be justified in believing that the biostatic and anthro- pological factors peculiar to the Jewish child are pure racial characters, possibly modified to some extent by influences of environment.

If, however, the degree of Ezra Feldman Vagina of intermarriage has been of such an extent as to cause a considerable infusion of non-Jewish racial elements into Jewish veins, then we must conclude Ezra Feldman Vagina any difierences that may exist between the char- acters of Jewish and non-Jewish children have very little to do with the question of race — are not, that is to say, due to anatomical or physiological peculiarities, but are rather in the main the result of social, religious, and political environment.

Thus, to mention only a few, Hagar, a wife of Abraham, was an Egyptian, and Zipporah, the wife of Moses, was a Midianite.

David was a descendant of Ruth, Ezra Feldman Vagina Moabite woman, and his son Solomon " loved many strange women For they have taken of their daughters for themselves, and for their sons.

Thus, Joseph Jacobs mentions that, of the doctors Ezra Feldman Vagina the Mishna up Ezra Feldman Vagina a. Meir, Schemjah, Ezra Feldman Vagina Abtalion ; but he adds that, of the 1, doctors of the Gemara from a.

Inst, Eeference to Baba Bathra a. During the Middle Ages, Ezra Feldman Vagina, intermarriage between Jews and Gentiles was taking place, in spite of the feeling of hostility between Jews and Ezra Feldman Vagina in those times, and notwithstanding the prohibition of such unions by both Synagogue and Church. The greatest number of those marriages took place in Southern Europe, especially Spain, Portugal, and Ezra Feldman Vagina.

Indeed, the authorities who maintain that the Jews are not a pure race go to the length of saying that " the Jews in Southern Russia, Hungary, Roumania, and part of Poland, are mainly descendants of Chozars who intermarried with Jews. As regards mixed marriages in modern times, figures 1 See H. Graetz, " History of the Jews," vol. Fishberg, Ezra Feldman Vagina. Thus, in Eastern Europe, where the Jews are both poor and very orthodox, mixed marriages are practically non-existent.

On the other hand, in Western Europe and the United States, where the Jews and Gentries are in intimate social contact with the general popula- tion, such unions are very prevalent. In Berlia, for instance, in17 per cent, Ezra Feldman Vagina all Ezra Feldman Vagina and 27 per cent, of all Jews Ezra Feldman Vagina Christians. In other words, every fourth Jew and every sixth Jewess married outside their faith. Euppin, " Die Juden der Gegenwart," pp. So much for facts. In order to analyze the influence that such intermarriages have had upon the racial purity of the Jewish child, we must pursue our inquiries Ezra Feldman Vagina the following directions: In what respects did the Jewish racial characters differ from those of the peoples with whom they inter- married?

To what extent did such mixed marriages take place? What is the fertility of mixed marriages? Is there such a thing as " prepotency " of the Jewish type — that is to say, does the Jewish blood possess, as it has been alleged to do, some mysterious power of transmitting the type uninterruptedly from generation to generation, in spite of admixture with other blood?

Or, stated in Mendelian terminology, is the Jewish type a dominant Ezra Feldman Vagina recessive feature? Lastly, how many of the offspring resulting from mixed unions remain within the Jewish fold? For it is obvious that, if the majority of Ezra Feldman Vagina offspring leave the Jewish community, then the effect of these marriages upon the racial Ezra Feldman Vagina of the Jewish child cannot be very significant. I propose to discuss briefly each of the above questions. Racial Characters of the Jews and of the People with whom they intermarried.

If it is between 79 Ezra Feldman Vagina 81 it is called mesocephalic, and if over 81 the type of head is called br achy cephalic, or broad-headed. The prevaiUng type of complexion of modern Jews is dark, but there is a certain proportion Ezra Feldman Vagina to 20 Ezra Feldman Vagina cent. The striking resemblance between Jews and Armenians is strong evidence of their common ancestry from the Hittites.

It is, however, not at all established that complexion is a racial trait. Ripley, " The Races of Europe," p. Sayce, op. Fishberg, however, who is a very energetic exponent of the theory of the racial Ezra Feldman Vagina of Jews, points out that climate cannot be Ezra Feldman Vagina for differentiation of pigmentation, since there are blonde Ezra Feldman Vagina living go here countries where the bulk of the population is brunette — e.

Eipley, " The Races of Europe. The pre- vailing type among European Jews is meso- or sub- brachycephalic, with a cephalic index ranging between 80 and Ezra Feldman Vagina but the Jews in the Caucasus Ezra Feldman Vagina markedly brachycephalic with a cephalic index ofwhilst those in Africa and Arabia are dolichocephalic C.

If we accept it as a fact that Ezra Feldman Vagina form is a purely racial character, then the great variety in the forms of Jewish heads obviously becomes a proof of their racial impurity. Some anthropologists, however, Ezra Feldman Vagina that the shape of the head is a character which is not deter- mined by heredity, but is subject to Ezra Feldman Vagina due to environment, such as intellectual activity and the pose of Ezra Feldman Vagina body assumed in one's daily occupations, brachy- cephaly being assumed to be an accompaniment of great cerebral development.

Indeed, Professor Boas measured the heads of 30, immigrants and their descendants in New York, and found that Eastern European Jews with brachycephalic heads become in the next generation dolichocephalic. Nathan xxv. Livi is quoted by Ripley as having shown that in Northern Italy the professional classes are longer-headed than the peasants, while in the south the opposite rule prevails. Ripley, Ezra Feldman Vagina Tie Races of Europe," London,p. Cherokee British Columbia Navajo According to Boas, the decrease with age is due to the growth of frontal sinuses and the occipital protuber- ance, especially in males.

For similar reasons women are more Ezra Feldman Vagina than men. Extent to which Ezra Feldman Vagina intermarried with Other Nations. Jacobs believes that the relative number of such mixed marriages was Ezra Feldman Vagina great. I have already mentioned that, although no less than eight of the doctors of the Mishna up to A. Eliezer probably with the usual Talmudical exaggeration said Ezra Feldman Vagina Ezra did not leave Babylon until he expurgated her from all racial impurity and made her as pure as fine flour.

As regards the Chozars, it was pointed out by Jacobs that these proselytes formed the Karaite sect, which has remained altogether distinct from the rest of Euro- pean Jews. Indeed, all historical evidence seems to point to the fact that from the second to the nineteenth centuries there was very little intermixture Ezra Feldman Vagina Jewish and Gentile bloods. Says Mr. Their blood has been untouched by conversion, even by intermarriage. Reinach, " the enormous growth of the Jewish nation in Egypt, Cyprus, and Cyrene, cannot please click for source accounted for with- out supposing an abundant infusion of the Gentile blood.

The fact that those statistics only apply to mar- riages contracted between two people whose creeds differ at the time of the marriage, but do not include unions between Jews and proselytes. In those Ezra Feldman Vagina where marriage between Jew and Christian is forbidden, many of the marriages in which one of the parties is styled as " free-thinker " are really mixed marriages.

Hence mixed marriages probably occur to a considerably greater degree than is shown by statistics. Jacobs is, however, of opinion that probably not more than per cent, of all Jewish marriages throughout the world are mixed. The Fertility of Mixed Marriages. Superficially, statistics ' Quoted by James K. Hosmer in " The Jews," London,p. Eeinacli, article " Judsei "in " Dictionnaire des An- tiquites," quoted by Fishberg, of.

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This is a fallacious method, because the vast Ezra Feldman Vagina of births during any one year are due to marriages contracted in the previous twenty-five years, and, as the number of mixed marriages is continually increasing, it is obvious that the births of the year considered are reaUy due to a considerably smaller Ezra Feldman Vagina of mixed marriages than are recorded for that year.

Thus Fishberg quotes Ruppin to Ezra Feldman Vagina the fallacy of this method: In there were in Prussia only births to each mixed marriage contracted during that year, as against to each Jewish marriage.

But, as the majority of these births Ezra Feldman Vagina the results of marriages of about twenty-five years, we are led to investigate further. In there were only here marriages in Prussia, whilst in they reached Thon, quoted by Fisliberg.

Jahaj Fucking Watch Video Ballerinafucks Me. The early detachment of the placenta from the uterus. Placenta previa. The placenta covers or is near the cervical opening. Overdistended uterus. Excessive enlargement of the uterus due to too much amniotic fluid or a large baby, especially with birthweight over 4, grams 8. Multiple pregnancy. More than one placenta and overdistention of the uterus. Gestational hypertension or preeclampsia. High blood pressure of pregnancy. Having many previous births Prolonged labor Infection Obesity Medications to induce labor Medications to stop contractions for preterm labor Use of forceps or vacuum-assisted delivery General anesthesia Other factors that may cause postpartum hemorrhage according to CHOP are: Tear in the cervix or vaginal tissue Tear in a uterine blood vessel Bleeding into a hidden tissue area or space in the pelvis. This mass of blood is called a hematoma, and it is usually located in the vulva or vagina. Blood clotting disorders, such as disseminated intravascular coagulation Placenta accreta. The placenta is abnormally attached to the inside of the uterus a condition that occurs in one in 2, births and is more common if the placenta is attached over a prior cesarean scar. Placenta increta. The placental tissues invade the muscle of the uterus. Placenta percreta. The placental tissues go all the way into the uterine muscle and may break through rupture. Uterine rupture, which is an uncommon event. It was the custom in the time of the Talmud to sprinkle wine and nuts before a bridal procession as a sign of luck. This was, however, done only in summer, but not in winter, on account of the dirt. Zarali Abrahamg, op. One day some Roman soldiers seized the fowls, and were maltreated by the Jews in consequence. This was reported to the Government as a case of Jewish rebellion, and the Emperor came and destroyed the city and massacred its inhabitants. The Domestic Life of Husband and Wife. The Duties of a Wife to her Husband. This action exposed her bare arms because women used to wear wide sleeves , which were so clear and beautiful that they made a strong impression, even on Rava himself. Rava's wife thereupon be- came so jealous that she expelled the plaintiff from the court-house. A wife must do light domestic work even if she brought with her a hundred servants, for idleness is the mother of all evil. He got very angry with her, and sarcastically told her next time to cook a bushel of lentils, which she did! He then told her to bring him two hvtzine which may mean either candles or carrots, but he wanted carrots , and she brought him two candles. He then lost his temper, and said, " Go and break these candles against haba " which means m Aramaic a door. But a learned man of the name of Baba ben Buta happened to sit at the door, so she broke the candles over his head. When Baba asked her why she did that, she replied: Ashi with this sum without a written, signed and witnessed I. Kethubotli vi. Metzia 59a. Chisda was once ornamenting herself in the presence of her daughter-in-law. Huna bar Chinena, who was present at the time, remarked that it only becomes a young woman to adorn herself, but not an old one. To this R. Chisda cynically rejoined: A woman of sixty is as enthusiastic over the music of a cymbal,, and of dancing, as a girl of six. The Talmud says that those who were afflicted with poverty or dyspepsia in their life, and received those sufierings with resignation, will enjoy immunity from punishment in the world to come. Some Eabbis added also " one who has a shrew of a wife "; for, said they, it cannot be argued that such a wife can easily be divorced and therefore ought not to be included, since in some instances there may be a heavy money settlement on her which the husband cannot afiord to give her, or he may not wish to divorce her on account of their children. In the Egyptian village of Sechanja a man wanted to obtain a divorce from his wife without paying her the marriage settlement. So he invited his friends to a feast, and made them as well as his wife drunk: Ensuite, s'etant procure des temoins, il vint plaider ie divorce pour cause d'adultere. Mais I'un des juges du nom de Baba ben Butha dit a ses coUegues, ' Je tiens de mon maitre Shammai I'Ancien que I'albumine se coagule simplement sous I'influence de la chaleur, tandis que le sperme traverse les tissus en les empes- sant. Tlie earth, is strong, but the rocks are stronger. The rock is strong, but iron breaks it. Iron is strong, but fire can melt it. Fire is strong, but water quenches it. Water is strong, but the clouds absorb it. The clouds are strong, but the wind disperses them. The wind is strong, but a wall withstands it. A wall is strong, but a man destroys it. A man is strong, but trouble unnerves him. Trouble is strong, but wine removes it. Wine is strong, but sleep overcomes it. Sleep is strong, but illness dispels it. Illness is strong, but the Angel of Death conquers it. But a bad wife is worse than all these. Chiya had a shrew of a wife, but he treated her well, saying, " It is enough if our wives bring up our children and save us from sin. As an encouragement to the timid, the Midrash says: It is the few who go and do not return. Thus, many take a wife, and most of them prosper. It is only the few who stumble. In cases of sterility it used to be the custom for the women to adopt other people's children, or orphans, or foundlings. Thus, Sarah, Rachel, and Leah, who had been childless, gave their maid-servants to their hus- bands, and adopted their children. Pharaoh's daughter adopted Moses. Joshua asked, " Why is it written 2 Sam. Was it not Merab who bore them? This is meant to teach that he who brings up an orphan in his house is as if he were his father. Chanina drew the same moral from the verse in Ruth iv. The Bible enumerates the following degrees of kinship which, a man must not marry: A mother, a stepmother, sister, half-sister legitimate or not , granddaughter, aunt on the paternal side , daughter-in-law, brother's wife except in cases of levirate marriage , stepdaughter, wife's mother, step-granddaughter, or wife's sister dur- ing the wife's life. Marriage between sister and brother was common amongst the Egyptians, who were a highly cultured race. From a purely biological aspect there can, of course, be no reason whatever for not marrying a deceased brother's wife, since there is no blood-relationship be- tween them. Indeed, from a purely biological stand- point there can be no reason for interdicting the marriage of the closest relatives. The Ptolemys habitually practised incest, having married their sisters and other close relatives without any visibly evil results. They were neither sterile nor short-lived, and were not par- ticularly subject to disease. Some of them, moreover, were singularly sharp-witted. The only apparent reasons against such marriages are — 1. The marked difierences in age between parents and children see p. The risk of brothers and sisters marrying each other while yet too young. Why, however, the Jewish law forbids marriage be- tween nephew and aunt, and not between uncle and niece, it is not easy to explain. By the following fallacious a fortiori reasoning R. Jose ben Thadai of Tiberias wanted to prove that it is not permissible to marry any girl except she be the daughter of a widow or divorcee. Chanina answered: Such was the importance attached to children that, if a man died without issue, his widow was given to his brother for a wife, in order that " the firstborn which she beareth shall succeed in the name of his brother which is dead, that his name be not put out of Israel. When he pleaded inability to support them all, the widows replied that they would each support the house- hold for one month in the year. After three years had passed, and the first leap year month arrived, Eabbi had to support, in addition to the husband with his twelve wives, also a crowd of thirty-six children! There are several cases in which levirate was not allowed, viz. If a man married his brother's daughter which is permissible according to Jewish law , and he died child- less, the widow, being the daughter of the surviving brother, cannot be given to him as wife. If a man had another wife in addition to his fraternal niece, the surviving brother, who is the father of the first wife, must not marry either of the widows. If a King dies without male issue, his brother is not to marry his widow according to levirate law, nor is a King to perform that duty in the case of his brother's widow. Further, if the widow is impotent or her dead husband suffered from impotence, levirate marriage is not allowed. Again, if the man is suffering from a contagious disease like leprosy, or has an occupation like tanning which might conceivably be objectionable to the widow, this marriage is not to take place. The ceremony of levirate has now been given up alto- gether in favour of Chalitzah. Smith, " Kinship," etc. Letourneau, " Evolution of Marriage," p. Stareke, "Primitive Family," pp. If levirate was impossible on account of unwillingness of the brother, " then shall his brother's wife come unto him in the presence of the elders, and loose his shoe from off his foot, and spit in front of him, and say. So shall it be done unto that man that will not build up his brother's house. The question of the intermarriage between Jews and Gentiles is one of considerable interest from the point of view of this book. If, for instance, we could show that the admission of non- Jewish blood by intermarriage from the earliest time to the present day is a negligible quantity, then we might be justified in believing that the biostatic and anthro- pological factors peculiar to the Jewish child are pure racial characters, possibly modified to some extent by influences of environment. If, however, the degree of prevalence of intermarriage has been of such an extent as to cause a considerable infusion of non-Jewish racial elements into Jewish veins, then we must conclude that any difierences that may exist between the char- acters of Jewish and non-Jewish children have very little to do with the question of race — are not, that is to say, due to anatomical or physiological peculiarities, but are rather in the main the result of social, religious, and political environment. Thus, to mention only a few, Hagar, a wife of Abraham, was an Egyptian, and Zipporah, the wife of Moses, was a Midianite. David was a descendant of Ruth, a Moabite woman, and his son Solomon " loved many strange women For they have taken of their daughters for themselves, and for their sons. Thus, Joseph Jacobs mentions that, of the doctors of the Mishna up to a. Meir, Schemjah, and Abtalion ; but he adds that, of the 1, doctors of the Gemara from a. Inst, Eeference to Baba Bathra a. During the Middle Ages, again, intermarriage between Jews and Gentiles was taking place, in spite of the feeling of hostility between Jews and Christians in those times, and notwithstanding the prohibition of such unions by both Synagogue and Church. The greatest number of those marriages took place in Southern Europe, especially Spain, Portugal, and Gaul. Indeed, the authorities who maintain that the Jews are not a pure race go to the length of saying that " the Jews in Southern Russia, Hungary, Roumania, and part of Poland, are mainly descendants of Chozars who intermarried with Jews. As regards mixed marriages in modern times, figures 1 See H. Graetz, " History of the Jews," vol. Fishberg, of. Thus, in Eastern Europe, where the Jews are both poor and very orthodox, mixed marriages are practically non-existent. On the other hand, in Western Europe and the United States, where the Jews and Gentries are in intimate social contact with the general popula- tion, such unions are very prevalent. In Berlia, for instance, in , 17 per cent, of all Jewesses and 27 per cent, of all Jews married Christians. In other words, every fourth Jew and every sixth Jewess married outside their faith. Euppin, " Die Juden der Gegenwart," pp. So much for facts. In order to analyze the influence that such intermarriages have had upon the racial purity of the Jewish child, we must pursue our inquiries in the following directions: In what respects did the Jewish racial characters differ from those of the peoples with whom they inter- married? To what extent did such mixed marriages take place? What is the fertility of mixed marriages? Is there such a thing as " prepotency " of the Jewish type — that is to say, does the Jewish blood possess, as it has been alleged to do, some mysterious power of transmitting the type uninterruptedly from generation to generation, in spite of admixture with other blood? Or, stated in Mendelian terminology, is the Jewish type a dominant or recessive feature? Lastly, how many of the offspring resulting from mixed unions remain within the Jewish fold? For it is obvious that, if the majority of such offspring leave the Jewish community, then the effect of these marriages upon the racial purity of the Jewish child cannot be very significant. I propose to discuss briefly each of the above questions. Racial Characters of the Jews and of the People with whom they intermarried. If it is between 79 and 81 it is called mesocephalic, and if over 81 the type of head is called br achy cephalic, or broad-headed. The prevaiUng type of complexion of modern Jews is dark, but there is a certain proportion 15 to 20 per cent. The striking resemblance between Jews and Armenians is strong evidence of their common ancestry from the Hittites. It is, however, not at all established that complexion is a racial trait. Ripley, " The Races of Europe," p. Sayce, op. Fishberg, however, who is a very energetic exponent of the theory of the racial impurity of Jews, points out that climate cannot be responsible for differentiation of pigmentation, since there are blonde Jews living in countries where the bulk of the population is brunette — e. Eipley, " The Races of Europe. The pre- vailing type among European Jews is meso- or sub- brachycephalic, with a cephalic index ranging between 80 and 83; but the Jews in the Caucasus are markedly brachycephalic with a cephalic index of , whilst those in Africa and Arabia are dolichocephalic C. If we accept it as a fact that head form is a purely racial character, then the great variety in the forms of Jewish heads obviously becomes a proof of their racial impurity. Some anthropologists, however, believe that the shape of the head is a character which is not deter- mined by heredity, but is subject to changes due to environment, such as intellectual activity and the pose of the body assumed in one's daily occupations, brachy- cephaly being assumed to be an accompaniment of great cerebral development. Indeed, Professor Boas measured the heads of 30, immigrants and their descendants in New York, and found that Eastern European Jews with brachycephalic heads become in the next generation dolichocephalic. Nathan xxv. Livi is quoted by Ripley as having shown that in Northern Italy the professional classes are longer-headed than the peasants, while in the south the opposite rule prevails. Ripley, " Tie Races of Europe," London, , p. Cherokee British Columbia Navajo According to Boas, the decrease with age is due to the growth of frontal sinuses and the occipital protuber- ance, especially in males. For similar reasons women are more brachycephalic than men. Extent to which Jews intermarried with Other Nations. Jacobs believes that the relative number of such mixed marriages was not great. I have already mentioned that, although no less than eight of the doctors of the Mishna up to A. Eliezer probably with the usual Talmudical exaggeration said that Ezra did not leave Babylon until he expurgated her from all racial impurity and made her as pure as fine flour. As regards the Chozars, it was pointed out by Jacobs that these proselytes formed the Karaite sect, which has remained altogether distinct from the rest of Euro- pean Jews. Indeed, all historical evidence seems to point to the fact that from the second to the nineteenth centuries there was very little intermixture between Jewish and Gentile bloods. Says Mr. Their blood has been untouched by conversion, even by intermarriage. Reinach, " the enormous growth of the Jewish nation in Egypt, Cyprus, and Cyrene, cannot be accounted for with- out supposing an abundant infusion of the Gentile blood. The fact that those statistics only apply to mar- riages contracted between two people whose creeds differ at the time of the marriage, but do not include unions between Jews and proselytes. In those countries where marriage between Jew and Christian is forbidden, many of the marriages in which one of the parties is styled as " free-thinker " are really mixed marriages. Hence mixed marriages probably occur to a considerably greater degree than is shown by statistics. Jacobs is, however, of opinion that probably not more than per cent, of all Jewish marriages throughout the world are mixed. The Fertility of Mixed Marriages. Superficially, statistics ' Quoted by James K. Hosmer in " The Jews," London, , p. Eeinacli, article " Judsei "in " Dictionnaire des An- tiquites," quoted by Fishberg, of. Pure Christian. Pure Jewish. This is a fallacious method, because the vast majority of births during any one year are due to marriages contracted in the previous twenty-five years, and, as the number of mixed marriages is continually increasing, it is obvious that the births of the year considered are reaUy due to a considerably smaller number of mixed marriages than are recorded for that year. Thus Fishberg quotes Ruppin to illustrate the fallacy of this method: In there were in Prussia only births to each mixed marriage contracted during that year, as against to each Jewish marriage. But, as the majority of these births are the results of marriages of about twenty-five years, we are led to investigate further. In there were only mixed marriages in Prussia, whilst in they reached Thon, quoted by Fisliberg. Another reason for their relative infecundity is the fact that the contracting parties of such marriages are relatively old. In other words, the Jewish race automatically rids itself of all foreign blood, and remains constantly pure in spite of intermarriage. Alleged Prepotency of Jewish Blood. But recent investigation has shown the opposite to be the case. Measurements taken of the second and third generations of American immigrant Jews show a natural elimination of the darker, shorter, and brachycephalic types, and a 1 " The Jews of To-Day," London, , p. Salaman is of opinion that this fact throws some light on the question of purity or otherwise of the Jews. The Jewish features are reces- sive to the Northern European including Teutonic , to the Italian, to the native Indian, to the Chinaman, and to the Negro. If, then, the Jew had freely inter- married with European races, it is obvious that the recessive Jewish facial characteristics would have been rapidly swamped, as has been the case, for instance, with the Falashas in Abyssinia, the Beni Israel in India, and with the Chinese Jews. But the very reverse is the case. The present Jewish features are the same as those depicted in Assyrian sculptures of B. There is one interesting fact which at first sight seems to militate against Salaman's conclusions regarding the racial purity of Jews. We should therefore expect that a 1 Fishberg, of. The great majority of the latter' s blue eyes are merely impure dominants. Evidence in favour of the purity of type is, according to Salaman, also available from Cohanim, who are the traditional descendants of the tribe of Aaron. All Jews of the name of Cohen, or some modification of it, are most probably such descendants. But people may be Cohanim without possessing the name of Cohen. No one, says Salaman very reasonably, who has no right to the title of Cohen by birth would assume the name, because it conveys no social distinction or advan- tage, but, on the contrary, is accompanied by consider- able disadvantages — e. Virchow, Arch. Schimmer, Mitt. Hence the conclusion is to be drawn that what- ever value may be ascribed to the purity of descent of Cohanim during the last 2, years must also be as- cribed to their brethren amongst whom they live. It is to be noted, however, that the purity of descent of the Cohanim is not only disputed by historians, but is greatly doubted even by orthodox casuists. As early as the fourteenth century Isaac ben Sheshet made a distinction between the real Cohanim whose descent could be traced from Aaron the High Priest, and others whose claim to the title could only be assumed. The same position was taken up in the sixteenth century by Samuel de Medina, and later by Solomon Loria, who says that during the long exile of the Jews it is almost certain that both Cohanim and Levites have failed to maintain the purity of their blood. The names of Jewish towns captured by the Egyptian King Shishak, recorded on the walls of the Temple of Karnak, are each surrounded with the head and shoulders of a prisoner, which Flinders Petrie has shown to be Amorite, and not Jewish, in type. This is evidence to the efEect that the Jewish type was so scantily represented as to be passed over by the Egyptian artist. The exact origin of the Amorites is a question of some interest. This Pan-Germanic school goes as far as to suggest that whatever good qualities the Jews possess they owe to the admixture in them of German blood through the fair-haired Amorites. Salaman's interesting observations, however, seem to prove definitely that if, as is more than probable, the fair features found amongst Jews are derived originally from Amorites, then the Amorites were not Germanic. For, whereas the German or Teutonic type is a dominant Mendelian character, Salaman, from an examination of the offspring of marriages between such non- Jewish- looking Jews and Jews who have a definitely pro- nounced cast of features, ascertained that this non-Jewish type found among them is recessive to the typically Jewish since all the children were typically Jewish. Hence, whatever the origin of this non-Jewish type may be, whether it is Amoritic or not, " it is at least quite certain that it cannot be Teutonic in origin. Salaman found that in marriages between typical Sephardic and Ashkenazic Jews, the physiognomy of the former is dominant, showing that not only is their claim of greater purity unjustified, but that on the contrary during the last years " the Ashkenazim can show a far cleaner bUl than the Sephardim, who are known to have absorbed in no small quantity both Moorish and Iberian blood. Thus, only about 10 per cent, remain definitely Jews and marry in the Jewish community. According to Euppin, the number of legitimate and illegitimate hybrid children born yearly into Jewish families in Prussia is about per cent, of the pure Jewish births, a proportion which, as he remarks, " must in the course of time considerably modify the race character of the Jews. Arguments Against. Arguments in Favour. Intermarriage in Biblical 1. These marriages were small and Talmudical times. Wholesale conversion to Ju- 2. These converts became daism in the Middle Ages — e. Marked differences in type 3. These differences are not — e. The following additional arguments seem to determine the balance in favour of the view that the Jewish race has remained practically pure: The Jewish face, being, as alleged, a recessive Mendelian character, would have been entirely swamped if intermarriage had taken place to any considerable extent. Cohanim, who are not allowed to marry proselytes, possess the same type of face as the rest of the Jews. We know, however, that in the time of Ezra even the priests intermarried see p. Mixed marriages are comparatively infertile, and the bulk of such ofispring leave the Jewish community. The sum total of the arguments is that, whilst there seelns to be very little doubt that the Jews are not a pure Semitic race, their ancient ancestors having freely intermarried with non-Semitic Amorites, Hittites, etc. If the smoke will go through her body and reach her nostrils, the fault of her sterility does not lie with her " Hippocrates, De nat. Physiology of Pregnancy. The Talmud and Midrash refer to the wonders of pregnancy in the following words: Sotah iv. Indeed, Avicenna taught that there was a direct venous communication between the uterus and the breasts, and on this theory some primitive nations forbid intercourse during lactation, lest the child swallow semen together with the milk. Thus, it was believed that there was a possibility of conception occurring in a bath in quo spermatizaverat homof' and Ben Sira was said to have been the son of a daughter of Jeremiah who became enceinte from her father in that way. Zera and R. Poppa were also said to have been conceived in such a manner. Benzew, in his Introduction to Ben Sira, disproves these allegations, but those who believe in such a possibility may explain the immaculate conception of Mary in a similar way. Indeed, the Rabbi who expressed himself as a believer in such an occurrence was Simon ben Zoma, a sage of the second century A. Preuss, op. The question that was asked of him, probably sarcastically, was whether the High Priest, who may only marry a virgin, was allowed to marry a pregnant virgin. Ben Zoma answered the question in the affirmative, because, said he, conception was possible in a bath in which a man had just before washed himself. Averroes, an Arabian physician who died in , records that an acquaintance of his, whose hona fides was beyond dispute, stated on her oath that " impregnata fuerat subito in balneo lavelli aquse calidse, in quo spermatizaverunt mali homines cum essent balnea ti in illo balneo. Even as late as the beginning of the eighteenth century this belief prevailed, and R. According to R. Eliezer, no woman becomes preg- nant as the result of a first intercourse. Gesclileclitslebeii in d. Tiirkei," Berlin, , ii. Medizin," pp. Period of Most Favourable Impregnation. In cases of single coitus it has been found that the duration of pregnancy was days from that date, but it is also known that the duration of pregnancy is days as counted from the end of the last menstrual period, and therefore the fruitful coitus probably takes place about six days from the end of menstruation. Prevention of conception was not allowed except in the three following cases: Galabin and G. Blacker, " The Practice of Midwifery," London, , p. The first symptom is Amenorrhoea. Child marriages were, how- ever, discouraged; at any rate, pregnancy was in those cases 'prevented. But the guests ridiculed the festivities, and said: He invited the chiefs of the land with their wives and babies, and Sarah gave all the infants to suck. The 1 Nidah 9a. Eden mentions a case in a woman fifty-nine years old, who had her menopause nine years previously. Ghisda's statement on p. Longings were another sign of pregnancy. These were believed to originate from the foetus in other words, it was considered a toxaemia of pregnancy , and hence, if they were for something which was ritually forbidden, they were taken as a bad sign for the future career of the child. Eden, " A Manual of Midwifery," 3rd edit. Chagiga ii. He advised that somebody should whisper into the woman's ear that it was the Day of Atonement. This was done, and the longing disappeared. She then gave birth to a son, who afterwards became the great Rabbi R. Hence, says the Talmud, the say- ing in Jeremiah i. Among the other signs of pregnancy were Foetal Movements. My editor told me to not read the comments — and I tried not to. Most comments made me blush. And not in a good way. I was told numerous times to do with myself that which I am certain is hardly even physically possible and must hurt. And to do so in ways that were almost definitely not loving. The anger shocked me for a few reasons. The most obvious was that if one took the time to read what I wrote, I was tremendously supportive of the plight of the farmers. But the old South African flags at the protests, and the fact that in advance people were asked to leave them at home, proved the dishonesty of the approach. It was plain and simply about white farmers. He says. Does Ray Donovan like what he does? Who he is? The episode ends abruptly after a line from Ray that might be my favorite moment of the season. We get it: But advertising revenue helps support our journalism. To read our full stories, please turn off your ad blocker. We'd really appreciate it. Click the AdBlock button on your browser and select Don't run on pages on this domain. Filed Under:.

Another reason for their relative infecundity is the fact that the contracting parties of such marriages are relatively old. In other words, the Jewish race automatically rids itself of all foreign blood, and remains constantly pure in spite of intermarriage. Alleged Prepotency of Jewish Blood. But recent investigation has shown the Ezra Feldman Vagina to be the case. Measurements taken of the second and third generations of Ezra Feldman Vagina immigrant Jews show a natural Ezra Feldman Vagina of the darker, shorter, and brachycephalic types, and a 1 " The Jews of To-Day," London,p.

Salaman is of opinion that this fact throws some light on the question of purity or otherwise of Ezra Feldman Vagina Jews. The Jewish features are reces- sive to the Northern European including TeutonicEzra Feldman Vagina the Italian, to the native Indian, to the Chinaman, and to the Negro.

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If, then, the Jew had freely inter- married with European races, it is obvious that the recessive Jewish facial characteristics would have been rapidly swamped, as has been the case, for instance, with the Ezra Feldman Vagina in Abyssinia, the Go here Israel in India, and with the Chinese Jews.

But the very reverse is the case. The present Jewish features are the same as those depicted in Assyrian sculptures of B. There is one interesting fact which at first sight seems to militate against Salaman's conclusions regarding the racial purity of Jews. We should therefore expect that a 1 Fishberg, of. The great majority of the latter' s blue eyes are merely impure dominants.

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Speaking of wonderful acting, Eddie Marsan actually has stuff to do this episode! What a treat. Still, the highlight here is the sight of both terry and Hector getting wasted and having a pushup Ezra Feldman Vagina.

The Donovans know better than any other Ezra Feldman Vagina family: Seems easy enough, Ezra Feldman Vagina As I said at the beginning, status is everything on Ray Donovan. You can be the biggest agent in Hollywood, the biggest boxing promoter. To learn more about the cookies our website is using or to switch them off, go to Ezra Feldman Vagina cookies settings page.

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Fuck gallary Watch Video negro naked. Below are answers to the eight most common questions asked by new and expectant moms about postpartum hemorrhage. For cesarean births, the average is about milliliters or one quart. An estimated 2. Postpartum hemorrhage affects , new moms per year. The most common cause of postpartum hemorrhage is failure of the uterus to adequately contract after a mother gives birth. This condition is called uterine atony. Those contractions help compress the blood vessels that attached the placenta to the uterus. If the contractions are not strong enough, the blood vessels will bleed freely, causing postpartum hemorrhage. Postpartum hemorrhage also occurs when small pieces of the placenta remain attached to the uterine wall after the placenta is expelled. According to CHOP, some women are at greater risk for postpartum hemorrhaging than others. Conditions that may increase the risk include:. Postpartum hemorrhage usually occurs within one day of childbirth. But it can happen up to 12 weeks following birth, according to March of Dimes. Treatment for postpartum hemorrhage will vary depending upon the situation and severity. According to CHOP, treatment for postpartum hemorrhage can include:. When doctors, nurses, midwives and other medical providers fail to timely recognize and properly treat postpartum hemorrhage, women can suffer devastating harm. Injuries caused by untreated postpartum hemorrhaging include:. The lawsuits filed on behalf of postpartum hemorrhage victims and families seek damages for medical bills, loss of earning potential, pain and suffering, and loss of the pleasures of life. Our website, like many others, uses small files called cookies to help us customize your experience. Does Ray Donovan like what he does? Who he is? The episode ends abruptly after a line from Ray that might be my favorite moment of the season. We get it: But advertising revenue helps support our journalism. To read our full stories, please turn off your ad blocker. We'd really appreciate it. Click the AdBlock button on your browser and select Don't run on pages on this domain. Filed Under: The Cochran Defense. The fact that those statistics only apply to mar- riages contracted between two people whose creeds differ at the time of the marriage, but do not include unions between Jews and proselytes. In those countries where marriage between Jew and Christian is forbidden, many of the marriages in which one of the parties is styled as " free-thinker " are really mixed marriages. Hence mixed marriages probably occur to a considerably greater degree than is shown by statistics. Jacobs is, however, of opinion that probably not more than per cent, of all Jewish marriages throughout the world are mixed. The Fertility of Mixed Marriages. Superficially, statistics ' Quoted by James K. Hosmer in " The Jews," London, , p. Eeinacli, article " Judsei "in " Dictionnaire des An- tiquites," quoted by Fishberg, of. Pure Christian. Pure Jewish. This is a fallacious method, because the vast majority of births during any one year are due to marriages contracted in the previous twenty-five years, and, as the number of mixed marriages is continually increasing, it is obvious that the births of the year considered are reaUy due to a considerably smaller number of mixed marriages than are recorded for that year. Thus Fishberg quotes Ruppin to illustrate the fallacy of this method: In there were in Prussia only births to each mixed marriage contracted during that year, as against to each Jewish marriage. But, as the majority of these births are the results of marriages of about twenty-five years, we are led to investigate further. In there were only mixed marriages in Prussia, whilst in they reached Thon, quoted by Fisliberg. Another reason for their relative infecundity is the fact that the contracting parties of such marriages are relatively old. In other words, the Jewish race automatically rids itself of all foreign blood, and remains constantly pure in spite of intermarriage. Alleged Prepotency of Jewish Blood. But recent investigation has shown the opposite to be the case. Measurements taken of the second and third generations of American immigrant Jews show a natural elimination of the darker, shorter, and brachycephalic types, and a 1 " The Jews of To-Day," London, , p. Salaman is of opinion that this fact throws some light on the question of purity or otherwise of the Jews. The Jewish features are reces- sive to the Northern European including Teutonic , to the Italian, to the native Indian, to the Chinaman, and to the Negro. If, then, the Jew had freely inter- married with European races, it is obvious that the recessive Jewish facial characteristics would have been rapidly swamped, as has been the case, for instance, with the Falashas in Abyssinia, the Beni Israel in India, and with the Chinese Jews. But the very reverse is the case. The present Jewish features are the same as those depicted in Assyrian sculptures of B. There is one interesting fact which at first sight seems to militate against Salaman's conclusions regarding the racial purity of Jews. We should therefore expect that a 1 Fishberg, of. The great majority of the latter' s blue eyes are merely impure dominants. Evidence in favour of the purity of type is, according to Salaman, also available from Cohanim, who are the traditional descendants of the tribe of Aaron. All Jews of the name of Cohen, or some modification of it, are most probably such descendants. But people may be Cohanim without possessing the name of Cohen. No one, says Salaman very reasonably, who has no right to the title of Cohen by birth would assume the name, because it conveys no social distinction or advan- tage, but, on the contrary, is accompanied by consider- able disadvantages — e. Virchow, Arch. Schimmer, Mitt. Hence the conclusion is to be drawn that what- ever value may be ascribed to the purity of descent of Cohanim during the last 2, years must also be as- cribed to their brethren amongst whom they live. It is to be noted, however, that the purity of descent of the Cohanim is not only disputed by historians, but is greatly doubted even by orthodox casuists. As early as the fourteenth century Isaac ben Sheshet made a distinction between the real Cohanim whose descent could be traced from Aaron the High Priest, and others whose claim to the title could only be assumed. The same position was taken up in the sixteenth century by Samuel de Medina, and later by Solomon Loria, who says that during the long exile of the Jews it is almost certain that both Cohanim and Levites have failed to maintain the purity of their blood. The names of Jewish towns captured by the Egyptian King Shishak, recorded on the walls of the Temple of Karnak, are each surrounded with the head and shoulders of a prisoner, which Flinders Petrie has shown to be Amorite, and not Jewish, in type. This is evidence to the efEect that the Jewish type was so scantily represented as to be passed over by the Egyptian artist. The exact origin of the Amorites is a question of some interest. This Pan-Germanic school goes as far as to suggest that whatever good qualities the Jews possess they owe to the admixture in them of German blood through the fair-haired Amorites. Salaman's interesting observations, however, seem to prove definitely that if, as is more than probable, the fair features found amongst Jews are derived originally from Amorites, then the Amorites were not Germanic. For, whereas the German or Teutonic type is a dominant Mendelian character, Salaman, from an examination of the offspring of marriages between such non- Jewish- looking Jews and Jews who have a definitely pro- nounced cast of features, ascertained that this non-Jewish type found among them is recessive to the typically Jewish since all the children were typically Jewish. Hence, whatever the origin of this non-Jewish type may be, whether it is Amoritic or not, " it is at least quite certain that it cannot be Teutonic in origin. Salaman found that in marriages between typical Sephardic and Ashkenazic Jews, the physiognomy of the former is dominant, showing that not only is their claim of greater purity unjustified, but that on the contrary during the last years " the Ashkenazim can show a far cleaner bUl than the Sephardim, who are known to have absorbed in no small quantity both Moorish and Iberian blood. Thus, only about 10 per cent, remain definitely Jews and marry in the Jewish community. According to Euppin, the number of legitimate and illegitimate hybrid children born yearly into Jewish families in Prussia is about per cent, of the pure Jewish births, a proportion which, as he remarks, " must in the course of time considerably modify the race character of the Jews. Arguments Against. Arguments in Favour. Intermarriage in Biblical 1. These marriages were small and Talmudical times. Wholesale conversion to Ju- 2. These converts became daism in the Middle Ages — e. Marked differences in type 3. These differences are not — e. The following additional arguments seem to determine the balance in favour of the view that the Jewish race has remained practically pure: The Jewish face, being, as alleged, a recessive Mendelian character, would have been entirely swamped if intermarriage had taken place to any considerable extent. Cohanim, who are not allowed to marry proselytes, possess the same type of face as the rest of the Jews. We know, however, that in the time of Ezra even the priests intermarried see p. Mixed marriages are comparatively infertile, and the bulk of such ofispring leave the Jewish community. The sum total of the arguments is that, whilst there seelns to be very little doubt that the Jews are not a pure Semitic race, their ancient ancestors having freely intermarried with non-Semitic Amorites, Hittites, etc. If the smoke will go through her body and reach her nostrils, the fault of her sterility does not lie with her " Hippocrates, De nat. Physiology of Pregnancy. The Talmud and Midrash refer to the wonders of pregnancy in the following words: Sotah iv. Indeed, Avicenna taught that there was a direct venous communication between the uterus and the breasts, and on this theory some primitive nations forbid intercourse during lactation, lest the child swallow semen together with the milk. Thus, it was believed that there was a possibility of conception occurring in a bath in quo spermatizaverat homof' and Ben Sira was said to have been the son of a daughter of Jeremiah who became enceinte from her father in that way. Zera and R. Poppa were also said to have been conceived in such a manner. Benzew, in his Introduction to Ben Sira, disproves these allegations, but those who believe in such a possibility may explain the immaculate conception of Mary in a similar way. Indeed, the Rabbi who expressed himself as a believer in such an occurrence was Simon ben Zoma, a sage of the second century A. Preuss, op. The question that was asked of him, probably sarcastically, was whether the High Priest, who may only marry a virgin, was allowed to marry a pregnant virgin. Ben Zoma answered the question in the affirmative, because, said he, conception was possible in a bath in which a man had just before washed himself. Averroes, an Arabian physician who died in , records that an acquaintance of his, whose hona fides was beyond dispute, stated on her oath that " impregnata fuerat subito in balneo lavelli aquse calidse, in quo spermatizaverunt mali homines cum essent balnea ti in illo balneo. Even as late as the beginning of the eighteenth century this belief prevailed, and R. According to R. Eliezer, no woman becomes preg- nant as the result of a first intercourse. Gesclileclitslebeii in d. Tiirkei," Berlin, , ii. Medizin," pp. Period of Most Favourable Impregnation. In cases of single coitus it has been found that the duration of pregnancy was days from that date, but it is also known that the duration of pregnancy is days as counted from the end of the last menstrual period, and therefore the fruitful coitus probably takes place about six days from the end of menstruation. Prevention of conception was not allowed except in the three following cases: Galabin and G. Blacker, " The Practice of Midwifery," London, , p. The first symptom is Amenorrhoea. Child marriages were, how- ever, discouraged; at any rate, pregnancy was in those cases 'prevented. But the guests ridiculed the festivities, and said: He invited the chiefs of the land with their wives and babies, and Sarah gave all the infants to suck. The 1 Nidah 9a. Eden mentions a case in a woman fifty-nine years old, who had her menopause nine years previously. Ghisda's statement on p. Longings were another sign of pregnancy. These were believed to originate from the foetus in other words, it was considered a toxaemia of pregnancy , and hence, if they were for something which was ritually forbidden, they were taken as a bad sign for the future career of the child. Eden, " A Manual of Midwifery," 3rd edit. Chagiga ii. He advised that somebody should whisper into the woman's ear that it was the Day of Atonement. This was done, and the longing disappeared. She then gave birth to a son, who afterwards became the great Rabbi R. Hence, says the Talmud, the say- ing in Jeremiah i. Among the other signs of pregnancy were Foetal Movements. Schapiro quickening first occurs, in the case of a boy, at three months, and in the case of a girl at four months. Luke i. Sctapiro, " Obstetrique des Anciens Hebreux," Paris, , p. It is also said that God made the matriarchs sterile in order that they might preserve their beautiful figures and retain their husbands' afiection. That pregnancy increases the weight of a woman was well known. The Talmudic legislators laid down the law that a beast of burden that was hired to carry a man must not be used for carrying a woman. If, how- ever, it was hired to carry a woman, it might not only be used to carry a man, but it might be utilized for the purpose of carrying even a pregnant woman. The owner cannot claim any extra pay for the extra weight of the foetus because mother and foetus are one body. Pregnancy could not be diagnosed with certainty before three months, and hence a divorcee or a widow was not allowed to remarry before the expiration of three months from the date of her divorce or her hus- band's death, in order that one might be able to establish the paternity of the next child. The woman was allowed to walk on soft clay, and from the depth of the footprints her condition was ascertained, those of a woman with child being deeper on account of the weight of the foetus. Saphra says that it is not per- missible to examine a married woman, as this would profane her in the eyes of her husband. For the ballottement sign, see p. The diagnosis of pregnancy in later months, " when," as the Rabbis characteristically put it, " the belly is between her teeth," is of course very easy. Difierence in sex ought to make itself known during pregnancy by means of the following signs: With a male child quickening occurs earlier compare the views of Hippocrates and Aristotle, p. Twin pregnancy was probably diagnosed or suspected from the violence of the foetal movements and from the ' Yebamotli 4: The variation in length between and or days is accounted for by the fact that the semen may, as they believed, remain alive inside the uterus for three days but not longer without its fertilizing an ovum. Yebamoth iv. It is now known that, although the sper- matozoa reach the Fallopian tube where fertilization generally occurs in not more than twenty-four hours, yet it is possible for them to lie in wait for the ovum for a very considerable period, since living spermatozoa have been found in a human Fallopian tube removed three and a half weeks after the last act of sexual intercourse. Hippocrates " De natura pueri," cap. Since is an exact multiple of 7, therefore days from the earliest of those days, Wednesday, falls on a Tuesday, and days from the same day falls on Sunday. It is, however, to be noticed that, apart from the two authorities mentioned, most of the Rabbis in the Talmud reckoned the duration of pregnancy in months instead of days. They considered it to last nine months lunar. The " Song of Numbers," sung on the first two evenings 1 Eden, op. In the seventeenth century Rabbi Moses ben Itzchak Lehmann of Poland, knowing that, according to all reliable observations, pregnancy really lasts nearly days instead of nine lunar months i. The Talmud stated that a calf cannot conceive before the fourth year, whilst experience has shown that it can do so in the third year. After an absence of eleven months he received news that his wife gave birth to a child. The Rabbis of the time, to appease the aggrieved husband, declared the child as his own, basing their verdict on the statement of R. Zarah Jore Deah. Hippocrates and Aristotle also speak of eleven months' children; the latter, however, speaks sceptically about them. Diminished Period of Gestation. In order to render a child legitimate, a great Rabbi of the fifteenth century, R. Preuss, Of. Nidah I. The discovery of a placenta or of membranes is absolute evidence of recent delivery. The same applies to the presence of a Sandal see Chapter IX. On the other hand, absence of lochia is evidence that the woman has not been delivered recently. Compare Nidah 25 and Now therefore beware, I pray thee, and drink not wine nor strong drink, and eat not any unclean thing " Judg. Care of Mother. In Chapter II. I have shown what a considerable amount of knowledge the Jews in the times of the Bible and of the Talmud had of the influence of heredity upon the physical and moral health of the child; but the other part of eugenics — viz. They knew that as a rule a physically and mentally healthy stock cannot be reared from parents deficient in these respects, but they were also aware that a good breed can be improved, or at any rate maintained, by great care and attention. Special precautions are mentioned in the Bible to protect a pregnant woman from injury. A pregnant woman is to be sheltered from fright and bad news, because such are likely to bring on a miscarriage. Phineas's wife, when she was near term, on hearing that " the ark of G-od was taken, and that her father-in-law and her husband were dead, bowed herself and travailed, for her pains came upon her. The story told in Genesis about Jacob and his flock shows that it was believed by Jews at that time that mental impressions at the moment of conception had a profound influence on the appearance as well as the character of the offspring: Akiba that he suspected his consort of infidelity, because, in spite of the fact that both he and she were dark-coloured, she gave birth to a white child. But R. Akiba said that this was no absolute proof of unfaithful- ness, because she might during intercourse have looked at pictures of white faces on the wall, and the King acknow- ledged that the pictures on his walls were those of white faces. According to Empedocles, infants resemble the statues which the mothers found pleasure in looking at during pregnancy. It also tells of a pregnant ass in whom a veterinary surgeon cauterized a wound, and she afterwards gave birth to a donkey with a mole. Kohana narrates that, in order to breed the " red heifer " for ritual pur- poses, they used to pass a red cup in front of the cow at the moment of conception. Directions regarding the diet of an expectant mother are given both in the Bible and in the Talmud. Certain indigestible articles, and in special cases, such as when 1 T. Fienus, " De viribus imaginationis," , cited by Ballantyne, oj. Zarab 24a. Beraitba, x. Strong purga- tives were also prohibited for the same reason. Great fatigue, such as baking bread in the middle of the day when the sun is hot , working a handmill, and excessive drinking of strong beer, have deleterious effects upon the offspring. Religious Privileges. For the mineralogical identification of that stone see Preuss, " Bibl. If she has a special longing for pork, it must be given to her, because, says the Talmud, in such cases every commandment may be broken except those forbidding idolatry, incest, and murder. Criminal Law. According to an old law, the child was con- sidered to be a separate being, and the woman must not, therefore, be executed till after the birth of the child ; but according to a later law the fcstus was con- sidered only a part of the mother, and must therefore share her fate. Civil Law. Thee, that Thou hast made me as the clay; aud wilt Thou bring me into dust again? Hast Thou not poured me out as milk, and curdled me like cheese? Thou hast clothed me with skin and flesh, and hast fenced me with bones and sinews. Thou hast granted me life and favour, and Thy visitation hath pre- served my spirit " Job x. Much of it is fanciful speculation, but a great number of facts are mentioned which were based on actual observation and accord with modern science. There were many experienced observers, among whom was Abba Saul, a grave-digger; and a certain Mar Samuel was the most celebrated embryologist of his time. The uterus, says the Yalkut, is full of blood, and when fertilization takes place a white drop comes and meets the semen, and an embryo is created. But if a person destroys a piece of wood, although it is a potential article of furniture, he is yet not guilty of that sin; and, still, one who ' destroys seed,' which is only a potential human being, is like one who sheds blood. In this way he ascribes also to the Rabbis an adherence to the freformation theory of development see p. According to the ideas of that time, as we have already seen in Chapter VII. Thus, the white portions — viz. When the child dies, God takes away His portion to Himself, and leaves the remainder to his parents. Eav Pappa adds: Experiments on eggs of lower animals have shown that certain portions of the egg give rise to certain defimite portions of the adult organism. The primitive centre of formation of the embryo was supposed by some to be the head, whilst according to Abba Saul it was the umbilical vesicle, from which the parts of the embryo radiate in different directions. Schapiro in his " Obstetrique des Anciens H6breux," Paris, , p. He compares them to the two poles about which the universe rotates. The theory of epigenesis, which, it is hardly necessary to say, is the one universally accepted at the present time, is that a new formation of parts occurs out of unformed material not possessing at all the characters of the adult organism. The theory of preformation necessarily involved the further belief that the miniature organism inside the germ cell contained within itself, within still smaller limits, the individuals of the third generation, and so on ad infinitum ; so that the ovaries of Eve or the sperm cells of Adam contained encased within one another all the human beings that were ever born or that ever will ' Lev. This is called the " scatulation " or " pack- ing " theory of development. We shall refer to it again in the next chapter. Belief in preformation continued paramount till the end of the eighteenth century. The appearance of a forty-days embryo was, according to R. Abahu, as follows: Amram, the lower extremities can at that stage be distinguished as two purple threads. It is a wonderful thing, says the Midrash, that practi- cally within a finger's breadth there are several different kinds of fluids — viz. The tears are salt in order that the person who is crying should be irritated by them and stop his tears; otherwise the pro- longed bathing of the eyes in them would result in blindness. The secretion of the ears is waxy so as to intercept loud noises, which might injure the heart and cause death. The mucous nature of the nasal secretion intercepts smells which are dangerous to life. The salivary secretion is sweet so as to counteract the bad taste left in the mouth after vomiting. Eliezer said that a foetus inside the womb is like a nut placed inside a bladder of water. If you press your finger on the bladder the nut recedes. As sex was formed by the fortieth day, therefore " between the third and fortieth day man must pray that the ovum develop into a male child. Ishmael held that the male is formed on the forty -first day and the female on the eighty-first day. It was told to R. Ishmael that once Cleopatra, the Queen of Alexandria, condemned some of her female slaves to death. The execution was carried out forty-one days after a single experimental impregnation. At the post- mortem examination it was found that some contained male foetuses and others contained female foetuses. Foes, sect, iii. Preuss, Ishmael, how- ever, rightly insisted that there are some women in whom abortifacients are ineffective. Ishmael then narrated a similar experiment made by Cleopatra, " a Queen of Grreece," in the case of some of her condemned female slaves. On dissection it was found that the male foetuses were formed forty days and the females eighty-one days after a single inter- course. His opponents objected that such fallacious observations prove nothing, since the female embryos might have been conceived forty days later in prison. Ishmael's answer that the mothers had been care- fully watched to avoid such a possibility was met by the retort that whilst one could be quite sure of the watching, one could not be equally sure of the watchers, since"there is no means of guarding against unchastity. A foetus was pre- sented to him, and he declared it to be forty -one days old. It was, however, pointed out to him that the last day of the last menstrual period was only forty days pre- viously. Samuel replied, however, that this only points to the fact that intercourse must have taken place during menstruation. On inquiry this was found to be correct. As regards the organic function of the foetus during intra-uterine life, the following quotation is of extreme interest when compared with present-day knowledge: But as soon as it comes into the world, everything which had been closed opens, and that which was open closes; otherwise the child could not exist for a single hour. Some openings, like the ductus arteriosus, the foramen ovale of the heart, etc. The foetus does not pass any motions inside the uterus ; if it did it would kill its mother. Cyclops, monopsia,'' and atresia 1 Nidah Ballantyne, " Manual of Ante-Natal Pathology," vol. See also p. Double-Headed Monsters. PhUemo once asked Rabbi, tbe holy: When the father died there was a dispute about the legacy. The normal sons claimed that, as there were seven brothers altogether, each was entitled to one-seventh ; but the double-headed brother contended that he was equivalent to two, and that therefore the legacy was to be divided into eight equal portions, out of which he was entitled to two portions. The dispute was brought before the Court of King Solomon, who ordered that hot water should be poured on one of the heads, when the other head joined in the cry: One of the twins wanted to get married, but the weaker sister was too shy and modest to consent. A judge overruled her objection, and ordered the stronger one to be married. It did not take long before the weaker one died of shame, and very soon after the stronger one died from septi- csemia due to putrefaction of the dead sister. The following abnormalities are described and minutely discussed: Such a child must be circumcised on the eighth day, but no benediction is to be recited. And if the eighth day happens to be Sabbath-day, the ceremony is to be postponed. The whole hermaphrodite idea was probably purely Greek mythology. Tobia Katz, Maase Tobia, p. Kindly lent to the Author by Dr. Teratology, or the Mode of Production of Monstrosities. In earliest times, the Chaldeans believed that monsters were made by God for the purpose of warning mankind. Indeed, from a cuneiform tablet, which formed part of the royal library at Nineveh, and which is now stored in the British Museum, it is evident that the Chaldeans claimed to be able to foretell what was going to happen from the nature of the monstrosity that was born teratoscopy. The tablet, which is at least 4, years old, and possibly nearly 6, years of age, gives a list of sixty-two monstrosities or defects in babies, and the presages or omens they betoken. The following are a few see Fig. If the infant has no ears, there will be mourning in the country. If the infant has the heart open exocardia , the country will sufier calamity. But the old South African flags at the protests, and the fact that in advance people were asked to leave them at home, proved the dishonesty of the approach. It was plain and simply about white farmers. Which is actually okay. I just felt uncomfortable with it. The reaction to my article highlighted a few things; There is a massive challenge in being openly Jewish but commenting on various socio-political events that have no Jewish or Israel reference. No matter the subject, the fact that I wear a kippah defines how I am perceived and what I am expected to say. But more concerning is the anger of South Africans. Black Monday was a clear indication that South Africans of all races and of all religions have had enough of being let down by a corrupt government that was elected to serve them. The country is a powder keg..

Scott Weinstock, Daniel Wohlgelernter, Ezra. Postpartum Hemorrhage: September 20, Every woman expects blood loss as part of childbirth, Ezra Feldman Vagina by C-section or vaginally. What Causes Postpartum Hemorrhage?

Ezra Feldman Vagina

Ezra Feldman Vagina that may increase the risk include: Placental abruption. The early detachment of the placenta from the uterus. Placenta previa. The placenta covers or is near the cervical opening. Overdistended uterus. Pam grier getting fucked. Search the Ezra Feldman Vagina of over billion web pages on Ezra Feldman Vagina Internet. Books by Language. F31 The Jewish childiits history, folklore, 3 All books are subject to recall after two weeks. See p. Sc, LL.

You may use and print this copy in limited quantity for your personal purposes, Ezra Feldman Vagina may not distribute or provide access to it or modified or partial versions of it for revenue-generating or other commercial purposes. But whilst this book is ency- clopsedic in scope, and no pains have been spared to present a complete and fairly detailed panoramic view of the subject, it was not my aim to deal with my theme exhaustively.

Any such attempt would have meant Ezra Feldman Vagina almost every chapter to the size of a book. I believe, however, that I have not omitted any facts which have an important bearing on the subject. The scholar or serious Ezra Feldman Vagina who wishes to pursue the subject in greater detail will find in the numerous references plenty of signposts to show him the way.

For the benefit of those who possess a knowledge of Hebrew or Talmudics, I have added an appendix, giving, in the form of a Ezra Feldman Vagina index, the original of some of the more interesting Eabbinical Ezra Feldman Vagina or sayings referred to in the body Ezra Feldman Vagina the book.

In order to make the subject interesting reading, I have here and there interspersed a few pithy sayings or relevant anecdotes culled from Eabbinic literature. It will be noticed that, in dealing with the several epochs which constitute the life-cycle of the Jewish child, I have not started from the moment of birth, which is only one of the turning-points in Ezra Feldman Vagina cycle; nor even have I set out from the moment of conception.

To have done that would have meant the omission of the very important so-called germinal stage, the stage when, to borrow Ballantyne's phraseology, the child still has a dual existence inside the germ cells of its parents. Ezra Feldman Vagina have therefore started from this dual ante- conceptional stage, and passed in review every phase from that stage onwards until the child itself becomes capable of becoming a parent. The phases considered may be put into the following Ezra Feldman Vagina form: In describing each phase, I have begun from the earliest recorded period— viz.

I described what was known or believed about every phase in the life-cycle, from the biological, sociological, and legendary stand- points, in the classical Jewish literature, and, without any bias either way, compared such knowledge with that of contemporary non-Jewish writers of each period. To render such comparison more Ezra Feldman Vagina, I have added a biographical index giving the dates at which these Jewish and non-Jewish famous philosophers flourished.

I have further compared and contrasted the physical andfbiological characters of the modern Jewish child with click of its non-Jewish confrere. Modifying'Wunderbar's classification, one may divide Jewish biological science into the following periods: This period includes the time of Ben Sirah and that of the Essenes, and finishes with that of Thudas the physician Ezra Feldman Vagina Biographical Index. Midrashic, sixth to ninth centuries c.

It is obvious that the accomplishment of such a task necessitated somewhat varied and extensive reading. This was no easy Ezra Feldman Vagina considering the many hundreds — I might almost Ezra Feldman Vagina thousands — of references that had to be examined and Ezra Feldman Vagina. If I add the fact that the book was planned, compiled, and written, during the very Ezra Feldman Vagina odd moments snatched from a somewhat busy pro- fessional life, I believe that the kindly critic will take it as a suflScient excuse for Ezra Feldman Vagina of the minor imperfections which he may find in this work.

I have to thank the following authorities for having kindly read the manuscript, for the encouragement they gave me, as well as for the suggestions they were good enough to make. First and foremost Ezra Feldman Vagina wish to pay a tribute of respect to the memory of that great savant, the late Sir Lauder Brunton, M. Sc, F. Ezra Feldman Vagina spite of his failing strength, he took an enthusiastic interest in the work, and went out of his way to give me every help and encouragement.

The other gentlemen who read the book and gave me useful and pertinent suggestions are Major F. Mott, M. The Chief Rabbi has also Ezra Feldman Vagina good enough to find time to turn over its pages and give me his valuable criticism. I thank them all, visit web page I wish to express my special Ezra Feldman Vagina of gratitude to Sir James Crichton-Browne for the very flattering Introduction with which he was kind enough to favour me.

I am also indebted to that eminent teratologist. Ballantyne, Ezra Feldman Vagina the loan of Fig. Salaman, M. Kelynack also read the first few chapters and encouraged me to go on with the work. Lastly, it gives me great pleasure to record my very great indebtedness to that eminent Rabbinical scholar, my friend Rabbi A.

Not only have I derived considerable help from his classical Hebrew Biographies of the Rabbis, Ezra Feldman Vagina well as from his other important con- tributions to Rabbinic literature, especially his Index to the Agadas in the Talmud, Midrash, etc.

To any ordinary scholar, this would have meant many weeks of hard Ezra Feldman Vagina but such is Mr. Hyman's erudition that he accomplished the task in as many days. While I believe that all the Rabbinical quotations have Ezra Feldman Vagina correctly translated, the translations are not necessarily verbatim ones, exrcept in the case of the parts that really matter. In any case, it is only right to state that the full responsibility Ezra Feldman Vagina the translation and interpretation of these quotations must rest on myself alone.

Talmud Babylonian and Palestinian or Jerushalmiwith the usual commentaries — viz. In the footnotes, the Ezra Feldman Vagina Talmud is indicated by the prefix " Jer. Thus, Exod. Jewish Encyclopedia: Shulchan Aettch. Jewish Life in the Middle Ages. The Jews. Hygiene der Juden. Works mentioned in the Preface.

Pornstar daily Watch Video Fucking Kwait. Poppa were also said to have been conceived in such a manner. Benzew, in his Introduction to Ben Sira, disproves these allegations, but those who believe in such a possibility may explain the immaculate conception of Mary in a similar way. Indeed, the Rabbi who expressed himself as a believer in such an occurrence was Simon ben Zoma, a sage of the second century A. Preuss, op. The question that was asked of him, probably sarcastically, was whether the High Priest, who may only marry a virgin, was allowed to marry a pregnant virgin. Ben Zoma answered the question in the affirmative, because, said he, conception was possible in a bath in which a man had just before washed himself. Averroes, an Arabian physician who died in , records that an acquaintance of his, whose hona fides was beyond dispute, stated on her oath that " impregnata fuerat subito in balneo lavelli aquse calidse, in quo spermatizaverunt mali homines cum essent balnea ti in illo balneo. Even as late as the beginning of the eighteenth century this belief prevailed, and R. According to R. Eliezer, no woman becomes preg- nant as the result of a first intercourse. Gesclileclitslebeii in d. Tiirkei," Berlin, , ii. Medizin," pp. Period of Most Favourable Impregnation. In cases of single coitus it has been found that the duration of pregnancy was days from that date, but it is also known that the duration of pregnancy is days as counted from the end of the last menstrual period, and therefore the fruitful coitus probably takes place about six days from the end of menstruation. Prevention of conception was not allowed except in the three following cases: Galabin and G. Blacker, " The Practice of Midwifery," London, , p. The first symptom is Amenorrhoea. Child marriages were, how- ever, discouraged; at any rate, pregnancy was in those cases 'prevented. But the guests ridiculed the festivities, and said: He invited the chiefs of the land with their wives and babies, and Sarah gave all the infants to suck. The 1 Nidah 9a. Eden mentions a case in a woman fifty-nine years old, who had her menopause nine years previously. Ghisda's statement on p. Longings were another sign of pregnancy. These were believed to originate from the foetus in other words, it was considered a toxaemia of pregnancy , and hence, if they were for something which was ritually forbidden, they were taken as a bad sign for the future career of the child. Eden, " A Manual of Midwifery," 3rd edit. Chagiga ii. He advised that somebody should whisper into the woman's ear that it was the Day of Atonement. This was done, and the longing disappeared. She then gave birth to a son, who afterwards became the great Rabbi R. Hence, says the Talmud, the say- ing in Jeremiah i. Among the other signs of pregnancy were Foetal Movements. Schapiro quickening first occurs, in the case of a boy, at three months, and in the case of a girl at four months. Luke i. Sctapiro, " Obstetrique des Anciens Hebreux," Paris, , p. It is also said that God made the matriarchs sterile in order that they might preserve their beautiful figures and retain their husbands' afiection. That pregnancy increases the weight of a woman was well known. The Talmudic legislators laid down the law that a beast of burden that was hired to carry a man must not be used for carrying a woman. If, how- ever, it was hired to carry a woman, it might not only be used to carry a man, but it might be utilized for the purpose of carrying even a pregnant woman. The owner cannot claim any extra pay for the extra weight of the foetus because mother and foetus are one body. Pregnancy could not be diagnosed with certainty before three months, and hence a divorcee or a widow was not allowed to remarry before the expiration of three months from the date of her divorce or her hus- band's death, in order that one might be able to establish the paternity of the next child. The woman was allowed to walk on soft clay, and from the depth of the footprints her condition was ascertained, those of a woman with child being deeper on account of the weight of the foetus. Saphra says that it is not per- missible to examine a married woman, as this would profane her in the eyes of her husband. For the ballottement sign, see p. The diagnosis of pregnancy in later months, " when," as the Rabbis characteristically put it, " the belly is between her teeth," is of course very easy. Difierence in sex ought to make itself known during pregnancy by means of the following signs: With a male child quickening occurs earlier compare the views of Hippocrates and Aristotle, p. Twin pregnancy was probably diagnosed or suspected from the violence of the foetal movements and from the ' Yebamotli 4: The variation in length between and or days is accounted for by the fact that the semen may, as they believed, remain alive inside the uterus for three days but not longer without its fertilizing an ovum. Yebamoth iv. It is now known that, although the sper- matozoa reach the Fallopian tube where fertilization generally occurs in not more than twenty-four hours, yet it is possible for them to lie in wait for the ovum for a very considerable period, since living spermatozoa have been found in a human Fallopian tube removed three and a half weeks after the last act of sexual intercourse. Hippocrates " De natura pueri," cap. Since is an exact multiple of 7, therefore days from the earliest of those days, Wednesday, falls on a Tuesday, and days from the same day falls on Sunday. It is, however, to be noticed that, apart from the two authorities mentioned, most of the Rabbis in the Talmud reckoned the duration of pregnancy in months instead of days. They considered it to last nine months lunar. The " Song of Numbers," sung on the first two evenings 1 Eden, op. In the seventeenth century Rabbi Moses ben Itzchak Lehmann of Poland, knowing that, according to all reliable observations, pregnancy really lasts nearly days instead of nine lunar months i. The Talmud stated that a calf cannot conceive before the fourth year, whilst experience has shown that it can do so in the third year. After an absence of eleven months he received news that his wife gave birth to a child. The Rabbis of the time, to appease the aggrieved husband, declared the child as his own, basing their verdict on the statement of R. Zarah Jore Deah. Hippocrates and Aristotle also speak of eleven months' children; the latter, however, speaks sceptically about them. Diminished Period of Gestation. In order to render a child legitimate, a great Rabbi of the fifteenth century, R. Preuss, Of. Nidah I. The discovery of a placenta or of membranes is absolute evidence of recent delivery. The same applies to the presence of a Sandal see Chapter IX. On the other hand, absence of lochia is evidence that the woman has not been delivered recently. Compare Nidah 25 and Now therefore beware, I pray thee, and drink not wine nor strong drink, and eat not any unclean thing " Judg. Care of Mother. In Chapter II. I have shown what a considerable amount of knowledge the Jews in the times of the Bible and of the Talmud had of the influence of heredity upon the physical and moral health of the child; but the other part of eugenics — viz. They knew that as a rule a physically and mentally healthy stock cannot be reared from parents deficient in these respects, but they were also aware that a good breed can be improved, or at any rate maintained, by great care and attention. Special precautions are mentioned in the Bible to protect a pregnant woman from injury. A pregnant woman is to be sheltered from fright and bad news, because such are likely to bring on a miscarriage. Phineas's wife, when she was near term, on hearing that " the ark of G-od was taken, and that her father-in-law and her husband were dead, bowed herself and travailed, for her pains came upon her. The story told in Genesis about Jacob and his flock shows that it was believed by Jews at that time that mental impressions at the moment of conception had a profound influence on the appearance as well as the character of the offspring: Akiba that he suspected his consort of infidelity, because, in spite of the fact that both he and she were dark-coloured, she gave birth to a white child. But R. Akiba said that this was no absolute proof of unfaithful- ness, because she might during intercourse have looked at pictures of white faces on the wall, and the King acknow- ledged that the pictures on his walls were those of white faces. According to Empedocles, infants resemble the statues which the mothers found pleasure in looking at during pregnancy. It also tells of a pregnant ass in whom a veterinary surgeon cauterized a wound, and she afterwards gave birth to a donkey with a mole. Kohana narrates that, in order to breed the " red heifer " for ritual pur- poses, they used to pass a red cup in front of the cow at the moment of conception. Directions regarding the diet of an expectant mother are given both in the Bible and in the Talmud. Certain indigestible articles, and in special cases, such as when 1 T. Fienus, " De viribus imaginationis," , cited by Ballantyne, oj. Zarab 24a. Beraitba, x. Strong purga- tives were also prohibited for the same reason. Great fatigue, such as baking bread in the middle of the day when the sun is hot , working a handmill, and excessive drinking of strong beer, have deleterious effects upon the offspring. Religious Privileges. For the mineralogical identification of that stone see Preuss, " Bibl. If she has a special longing for pork, it must be given to her, because, says the Talmud, in such cases every commandment may be broken except those forbidding idolatry, incest, and murder. Criminal Law. According to an old law, the child was con- sidered to be a separate being, and the woman must not, therefore, be executed till after the birth of the child ; but according to a later law the fcstus was con- sidered only a part of the mother, and must therefore share her fate. Civil Law. Thee, that Thou hast made me as the clay; aud wilt Thou bring me into dust again? Hast Thou not poured me out as milk, and curdled me like cheese? Thou hast clothed me with skin and flesh, and hast fenced me with bones and sinews. Thou hast granted me life and favour, and Thy visitation hath pre- served my spirit " Job x. Much of it is fanciful speculation, but a great number of facts are mentioned which were based on actual observation and accord with modern science. There were many experienced observers, among whom was Abba Saul, a grave-digger; and a certain Mar Samuel was the most celebrated embryologist of his time. The uterus, says the Yalkut, is full of blood, and when fertilization takes place a white drop comes and meets the semen, and an embryo is created. But if a person destroys a piece of wood, although it is a potential article of furniture, he is yet not guilty of that sin; and, still, one who ' destroys seed,' which is only a potential human being, is like one who sheds blood. In this way he ascribes also to the Rabbis an adherence to the freformation theory of development see p. According to the ideas of that time, as we have already seen in Chapter VII. Thus, the white portions — viz. When the child dies, God takes away His portion to Himself, and leaves the remainder to his parents. Eav Pappa adds: Experiments on eggs of lower animals have shown that certain portions of the egg give rise to certain defimite portions of the adult organism. The primitive centre of formation of the embryo was supposed by some to be the head, whilst according to Abba Saul it was the umbilical vesicle, from which the parts of the embryo radiate in different directions. Schapiro in his " Obstetrique des Anciens H6breux," Paris, , p. He compares them to the two poles about which the universe rotates. The theory of epigenesis, which, it is hardly necessary to say, is the one universally accepted at the present time, is that a new formation of parts occurs out of unformed material not possessing at all the characters of the adult organism. The theory of preformation necessarily involved the further belief that the miniature organism inside the germ cell contained within itself, within still smaller limits, the individuals of the third generation, and so on ad infinitum ; so that the ovaries of Eve or the sperm cells of Adam contained encased within one another all the human beings that were ever born or that ever will ' Lev. This is called the " scatulation " or " pack- ing " theory of development. We shall refer to it again in the next chapter. Belief in preformation continued paramount till the end of the eighteenth century. The appearance of a forty-days embryo was, according to R. Abahu, as follows: Amram, the lower extremities can at that stage be distinguished as two purple threads. It is a wonderful thing, says the Midrash, that practi- cally within a finger's breadth there are several different kinds of fluids — viz. The tears are salt in order that the person who is crying should be irritated by them and stop his tears; otherwise the pro- longed bathing of the eyes in them would result in blindness. The secretion of the ears is waxy so as to intercept loud noises, which might injure the heart and cause death. The mucous nature of the nasal secretion intercepts smells which are dangerous to life. The salivary secretion is sweet so as to counteract the bad taste left in the mouth after vomiting. Eliezer said that a foetus inside the womb is like a nut placed inside a bladder of water. If you press your finger on the bladder the nut recedes. As sex was formed by the fortieth day, therefore " between the third and fortieth day man must pray that the ovum develop into a male child. Ishmael held that the male is formed on the forty -first day and the female on the eighty-first day. It was told to R. Ishmael that once Cleopatra, the Queen of Alexandria, condemned some of her female slaves to death. The execution was carried out forty-one days after a single experimental impregnation. At the post- mortem examination it was found that some contained male foetuses and others contained female foetuses. Foes, sect, iii. Preuss, Ishmael, how- ever, rightly insisted that there are some women in whom abortifacients are ineffective. Ishmael then narrated a similar experiment made by Cleopatra, " a Queen of Grreece," in the case of some of her condemned female slaves. On dissection it was found that the male foetuses were formed forty days and the females eighty-one days after a single inter- course. His opponents objected that such fallacious observations prove nothing, since the female embryos might have been conceived forty days later in prison. Ishmael's answer that the mothers had been care- fully watched to avoid such a possibility was met by the retort that whilst one could be quite sure of the watching, one could not be equally sure of the watchers, since"there is no means of guarding against unchastity. A foetus was pre- sented to him, and he declared it to be forty -one days old. It was, however, pointed out to him that the last day of the last menstrual period was only forty days pre- viously. Samuel replied, however, that this only points to the fact that intercourse must have taken place during menstruation. On inquiry this was found to be correct. As regards the organic function of the foetus during intra-uterine life, the following quotation is of extreme interest when compared with present-day knowledge: But as soon as it comes into the world, everything which had been closed opens, and that which was open closes; otherwise the child could not exist for a single hour. Some openings, like the ductus arteriosus, the foramen ovale of the heart, etc. The foetus does not pass any motions inside the uterus ; if it did it would kill its mother. Cyclops, monopsia,'' and atresia 1 Nidah Ballantyne, " Manual of Ante-Natal Pathology," vol. See also p. Double-Headed Monsters. PhUemo once asked Rabbi, tbe holy: When the father died there was a dispute about the legacy. The normal sons claimed that, as there were seven brothers altogether, each was entitled to one-seventh ; but the double-headed brother contended that he was equivalent to two, and that therefore the legacy was to be divided into eight equal portions, out of which he was entitled to two portions. The dispute was brought before the Court of King Solomon, who ordered that hot water should be poured on one of the heads, when the other head joined in the cry: One of the twins wanted to get married, but the weaker sister was too shy and modest to consent. A judge overruled her objection, and ordered the stronger one to be married. It did not take long before the weaker one died of shame, and very soon after the stronger one died from septi- csemia due to putrefaction of the dead sister. The following abnormalities are described and minutely discussed: Such a child must be circumcised on the eighth day, but no benediction is to be recited. And if the eighth day happens to be Sabbath-day, the ceremony is to be postponed. The whole hermaphrodite idea was probably purely Greek mythology. Tobia Katz, Maase Tobia, p. Kindly lent to the Author by Dr. Teratology, or the Mode of Production of Monstrosities. In earliest times, the Chaldeans believed that monsters were made by God for the purpose of warning mankind. Indeed, from a cuneiform tablet, which formed part of the royal library at Nineveh, and which is now stored in the British Museum, it is evident that the Chaldeans claimed to be able to foretell what was going to happen from the nature of the monstrosity that was born teratoscopy. The tablet, which is at least 4, years old, and possibly nearly 6, years of age, gives a list of sixty-two monstrosities or defects in babies, and the presages or omens they betoken. The following are a few see Fig. If the infant has no ears, there will be mourning in the country. If the infant has the heart open exocardia , the country will sufier calamity. An infant with three legs is an omen of great prosperity in the land. The same tablet also speaks of a ewe giving birth to a lion, suggesting hybridity as a cause of monster birth. The ancient Egyptians believed that monsters were produced as the result of a cross between a woman and a beast. Oppert, "Tablettes Assyriennes," Journal Asiatique, 6th. Ballantyne in "Teratologia," vol. At that time, how- ever, this theory began to be abandoned, and the ancient view was accepted, that animals could conceive only from those of the same species, and whose durations of pregnancy are alike. Eliezer held that a wild beast can conceive from an ox. According to the Midrash, such impressions were also responsible for the production of monstrosities. Ballantyne, " Ante-Natal Pathology," vol. Hyinan, " Beth Vaad Lachachamim," London, , p. Bober, Wilna, Other Supposed Teratogenic Causes were — a Abnormal or unnatural positions of the parents during intercourse — e. This view is still reflected in the words " freak of Nature " and in the botanical term " sport. Simla, who gives it, had an opportunity of making a post-mortem examination of a gravid uterus at full term. The Talmudic sages had, however, a mistaken idea that during the first three months the embryo lies in the lowest part of the uterus, during the second three months in the middle part, and during the last three months in the upper part, and when labour sets in the foetus ' ' turns round and comes out. Superfecundation and Superfoetation. Superfecundation or the successive impregnation by different fathers at different dates, within the range of one menstrual period. It is, however, known that two ova from the same period of ovulation may be fertilized during two consecutive connections, even by two different men, as has been proved by the fact that twin children of different colours one white, the other negro have been born. Aristotle, " De generat. For a normal uterus such a thing is possible up to three months. The Babylonian Talmud does not believe such a thing possible, and Abaye explained the birth of a second child thirty -three days after the first by saying that the ' Jer. Menachem of Searim records a case where the interval between the births of the first and second infant was three months. According to the Palestinian Talmud, however, super- foetation is possible within the first forty days. Chiya, were said to have been such twins, born at an interval of three months of each other. Bibi, however, allows the use of a tampon in such cases. Twins occur from the fertilization of two ova at the same intercourse. This is in agreement with modern views regarding the formation of a certain rare kind of twins. Twins may have one common amniotic cavity or two separate ones. We now know that twins may have one or two amniotic cavities, but that the modes of genesis of such kinds of twins are different. Where there is only one amniotic cavity, the twin has resulted from a splitting of the fertilized ovum, as was probably believed by Abaye, but such twins only form a very small minority of all cases less than 1 per cent,. The cases where two separate amniotic cavities are found arise either from two separate ova 86 per cent. There were two sisters whose re- semblance was so great that they could be easily mis- taken one for the other. One of them was suspected by her husband of infidelity, and was brought up to Jeru- salem to be submitted to the ordeal of bitter waters Num. Being guilty, she asked her sister to sub- stitute her, which the sister consented to do. After going through the ordeal, the latter was, of course, pronounced innocent. When she came home, the guilty 1 Otolotli vii. Shakespeare, how- ever, was scientifically incorrect when he founded his plot in " Twelfth Night " on the resemblance between Sebastian and Viola, as identical twins are always of the same sex. Determination of Sex. The problem of the determination of sex, which has till recently baffled modern biologists, and is even now not quite solved, also engaged the attention of the Talmudic philosophers. The question was an important one, because, as we have seen, male children were con- sidered a greater asset than female progeny. Joshua b. According to another Talmudical authority, the sex of the future child is determined by the relative times at which the orgasm occurs in the male and female respec- tively: Ketina said he could, if he liked, have all sons, either " en retardant son emission de sperme, ou bien en produisant deux ejaculations successives; car, dit Rashi, la femme excitee par la premiere emission, emettra son sperme avant la seconde emission de I'homme. It is only in cases where both orgasms occur simultaneously that prayers can help to determine sex. Chama ben Chanina stated, in the name of R. Isaac, that if the bed is placed between north and south 1 Shebuoth 18a. Eashi explains this pheno- menon as due to the fact that the Shechina, or Divine Presence, is situated in that direction. Feldman, " Child Physiology," to be published shortly. According to Galen, quoted by Preuss, it is the sper- matozoa which determine the sex; one coming from the right side will produce a male, and one from the other side a female; " et U recommande la compression de I'un ou de I'autre testicule, arretant ainsi la sortie de la semence, si quelqu'un desire engendrer un enfant de I'un ou de I'autre sexe. Doncaster, T. Morgan, E. Wilson, and others, have shown that sex is determined by internal conditions of the germ. That this is so is evident from the following facts: In the case of identical twins, resulting from the division of one egg to form two individuals, the children are always of the same sex. Woohenschrift, , No. As evidence in support of his theory, he mentioned the fact that the sex-ratio see Chapter XXV. This he believed was due to the special nidah or separation laws of the Jewish women, according to which sexual intercourse may not take place for at least twelve days from the beginning or seven days from the end of the menstrual flow. Pearl and Parshley, experimenting on cattle, found the follow- ing results: Sex of Young. Sex- Ratio. Early in heat Middle of heat. Late in heat 67 77 58 44 In order to test this theory in the case of human beings, my uncle, Rabbi Dayan A. Feldman, collected statistics of fifty-seven Jewish families in which one could be certain that the ritual laws of nidah are strictly observed. In the great majority of the families the mothers were at that time beyond the child- bearing age. Pearl and H. Bui, vol. On the strength of these statistics Pearl and Salaman conclude that " there is no evidence that in the human race the time of fertilization of the egg relative to the catamenial period has any influence on the sex-ratio exhibited by the ofEspriug. Pearl and R. Would that in sin he were the same When he departs as when he came! The placenta covers or is near the cervical opening. Overdistended uterus. Excessive enlargement of the uterus due to too much amniotic fluid or a large baby, especially with birthweight over 4, grams 8. Multiple pregnancy. More than one placenta and overdistention of the uterus. Gestational hypertension or preeclampsia. High blood pressure of pregnancy. Having many previous births Prolonged labor Infection Obesity Medications to induce labor Medications to stop contractions for preterm labor Use of forceps or vacuum-assisted delivery General anesthesia Other factors that may cause postpartum hemorrhage according to CHOP are: Tear in the cervix or vaginal tissue Tear in a uterine blood vessel Bleeding into a hidden tissue area or space in the pelvis. This mass of blood is called a hematoma, and it is usually located in the vulva or vagina. Blood clotting disorders, such as disseminated intravascular coagulation Placenta accreta. The placenta is abnormally attached to the inside of the uterus a condition that occurs in one in 2, births and is more common if the placenta is attached over a prior cesarean scar. Placenta increta. The placental tissues invade the muscle of the uterus. Placenta percreta. The placental tissues go all the way into the uterine muscle and may break through rupture. Uterine rupture, which is an uncommon event. Conditions that may increase the risk include surgery to remove fibroid benign tumors and a prior cesarean scar. What Are the Symptoms of Postpartum Hemorrhage? Never is that more apparent this week than in Conor, who shockingly gets the most nuanced and thoughtful storyline of the week. Ray takes Conor on a road trip down town to teach him a lesson about being a tough man, but not before Conor gets in his own shots. Texans love hats! For the second time in two weeks, Daryl is forced to undertake a dangerous, thankless task to hold things together. This time, his job is to take Joxy Maguire sp? At least, I can only hope so. Ray Donovan is so staunchly episodic that any loose threads left hanging in the previous episode just… disappear by the time the next episode rolls around. At the beginning of the episode this week, both Cochran and The Texan are being treated for their gunshot wounds and are subject to absolutely zero police questioning? Lets move on! Our B-story this time around is a rather delightful Mickey road trip 2. Which is actually okay. I just felt uncomfortable with it. The reaction to my article highlighted a few things; There is a massive challenge in being openly Jewish but commenting on various socio-political events that have no Jewish or Israel reference. No matter the subject, the fact that I wear a kippah defines how I am perceived and what I am expected to say. But more concerning is the anger of South Africans. Black Monday was a clear indication that South Africans of all races and of all religions have had enough of being let down by a corrupt government that was elected to serve them. The country is a powder keg. Howard Feldman. South Africa's flag photo credit:.

Jewish Statistics. The Jews of To-Day. The Races of the Old Testament. Obstetrique des Anciens Hebreux. School System of the Talmud. Sympodia, cyclops, Ezra Feldman Vagina, double-headed monsters, Siamese twins, etc. Jekyll and Mr. Learned in all the learnings of Ezra Feldman Vagina Hebrews, and Ezra Feldman Vagina versed in modern biology, Dr. Feldman has produced what might be called a medley. But it is a medley instructive and entertaining, showing how Rabbinical read more Talmudic precepts anticipated many of the hygienic teachings of to-day, and linking Oriental imagery with statistics and mathematical analysis.

It is an historical excur- sion varied and picturesque, and a philosophical treatise at once simple and profound. It contains, no doubt, drawn from the records of the past, a good deal of archaic physiology, doubtful anthropology, and ethics, not in accord with existing notions; but Ezra Feldman Vagina contains also a sound exposition of the most recent developments of these subjects.

With a not unnatural bias, Dr. Feldman is perhaps inclined to attach too much significance to Eabbinical writings, reading into them more wisdom than they warrant; but at the same time he brings to light a remarkable body of evidence of their subtle knowledge of human nature and of their practical sagacity, and in Ezra Feldman Vagina so he regales us with pungent proverbs, pretty fables, quaint metaphors, Ezra Feldman Vagina touches of humour.

Wife gets naked for my freind ans me

Feldman should sometimes fail to carry his reader with him. He gives a full and admirable state- ment of the Mendelian theory, but his conclusion in connection with it, founded on an investigation by Dr.

Salaman, that the Jewish type of face is a recessive Ezra Feldman Vagina, will not, perhaps, obtain general assent. The numbers included in Dr. Salaman's inquiry Ezra Feldman Vagina too few to justify any safe conclusion, and the decision as to whether a physiognomy was Jewish or Gentile must have been in many cases difficult and doubtful. The Rabbis are not always agreed amongst them- selves, so Dr. Feldman may be excused if he is some- times betrayed into inconsistency. He emphasizes the fact that Ezra Feldman Vagina Rabbis, two thousand years ago, arrived at a conclusion essentially Ezra Feldman Vagina same as that which living biologists have adopted Ezra Feldman Vagina the conclusion that, whilst environment may have some slight effect in influencing the welfare of the child, its influence is small compared with that of heredity.

It is Nature, he argues, and not nurture, that counts. But all the subsequent chapters of his book are devoted to insisting on the potent effects of a well-ordered environment on the Jewish chUd.

He shows how nurture, according Ezra Feldman Vagina Jewish methods, from the antenatal period up to puberty, confers, and always has conferred, signal advantages on the Jewish child, and may be instrumental in building up Ezra Feldman Vagina vigorous and well-balanced constitution.

And it is this part of his work that will attract most attention, and that is calcu- lated to make it useful. The people of this country cannot hope to share in the prepotency that Dr. At a time when the Ezra Feldman Vagina of infant life has become a matter of such vital importance, Ezra Feldman Vagina interest attaches to Dr.

Feldman's study of embryology, of the hygiene of pregnancy, of obstetrics, and Ezra Feldman Vagina nursing. In connection with each of these subjects he records judi- cious foresight and salutary ordinances, of a minuteness and stringency, however, that would not be tolerated now, mixed up with fantastic Ezra Feldman Vagina and illumiua- tive metaphors.

He discloses the inner meanings of ceremonial observances and the practical bearings Ezra Feldman Vagina the symbolical. On the relations between parents and children, and on education physical, intellectual, and moralDr.

Feldman has much to say that imparts freshness to these somewhat threadbare themes, and he makes it clear that Hillel was the forerunner of Montessori.

He is eminently suggestive, richly allusive, keenly introspective. He has made a Ezra Feldman Vagina and notable contribution to pedagogics and pediatrics, and no one concerned with these subjects, or with ethnology, or with physiology in its legendary aspects, can henceforth afiord to ignore his researches. Feldman's book is not only readable, but fascinat- ing, except where it deals with coefficients, and will, I feel sure, command a large circle of readers. Bechoroth 76 should be Bechoroth The Zohar was most probably written by Moses de Leon in the thirteenth century, Ezra Feldman Vagina not by See more the Blind, as given in the note.

Rasenproblem should be Eassenproblem. Ill, footnote 1 should come as Ezra Feldman Vagina 1 on p. Bechoroth 5a should be Bechoroth 8a. Quotation Ezra Feldman Vagina is possible of another interpretation, as follows: Dttring the first three months the embryo is in the true pelvis, during the second Ezra Feldman Vagina months in the false pelvis, and during the last three months in the upper part Ezra Feldman Vagina the abdomen. I have not been able to verify the statement attributed to Schwartz regarding the mortality of Jews from smallpox in the seventeenth century.

From the verse in Num. Hence, if there is one less than that number, and there be one man through whose Ezra Feldman Vagina that one is not forthcoming, it surely follows that such a man causes the Divine Presence to be read more from Israel " Yebamoth and 64a. Elite hentai porn sexy anime girls cartoon tube pussy fuck 6.

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